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Full text of "Shade trees for North Carolina"

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SHADE TREES FOR 
NORTH CAROLINA 

by 

W. W. Ashe 




I 





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NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND 
ECONOMIC SURVEY 

JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, STATE GEOLOGIST 



BULLETIN NO. 16 



SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA 

By 

W. W. ASHE 
Forester 



Raleigh 
E. M. Uzzel & Co., State Printers and Binders 

1908 



^ 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Chapel Hill, N". C, January 1, 1908. 
To His Excellency, Hon. Eobeet B. Glenn, 

Governor of North Carolina. 

Sir. — I herewith have the honor to submit for publication as Bulletin 

No. 16 of the reports of the Forth Carolina Geological and Economic 

Survey a report on Shade Trees for North Carolina by W. W. Ashe. This 

bulletin has been prepared especially for distribution in North Carolina. 

Yours respectfully, 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, 

State Geologist. 









I 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Preface 13 

Introduction 15 

Time to Plant 16 

Method of Planting 17 

Sun Scald of Young Trees 20 

Protection after Planting 22 

Pruning 22 

Time to Prune 22 

Small Branchlets '. 22 

Large Branches 28 

Pruning for Shape 24 

Pruning to Thicken Foliage 26 

Pruning Large Crowns to Reduce their Size : 26 

Care of Newly Planted Trees 28 

General Suggestions for Street Planting 29 

Shade Trees for North Carolina 30 

Ornamental Trees 31 

Ornamental Trees having Showy Flowers 31 

Autumn Foliage 32 

Objectionable Trees 32 

Arrangement of Trees on Streets 33 

Arrangement of Plantings 35 

Combinations of Trees 37 

Tree Planting Along Roads 38 

Walnuts 40 

Black Walnut 40 

English Walnut 40 

Arbor Day 40 

Descriptions of Trees Suitable for Planting 42 

Hardy Catalpa 42 

Umbrella Catalpa 43 

Paulonia 43 

Ashes 44 

Green Ash 44 

Swamp Ash 44 

White Ash and Biltmore Ash 45 

Small-leaved or Cork Elm 45 

White Elm 46 

Slippery Elm 46 

Hackberry 46 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Hickories 47 

Shagbark 47 

Carolina Shagbark 48 

Scalybark or Red Heart Hickory 48 

Pecan 49 

Black "Walnut 49 

Tulip Poplar 50 

Cucumber Tree ; 51 

Mountain Magnolia 51 

Evergreen Magnolia 52 

American Linden and White Linden 53 

The European Silver Linden 53 

Horse Chestnut 54 

Buckeye 54 

Maples 54 

Norway Maple 54 

Southern Maple 54 

Sugar Maple 55 

Red Maple 55 

Silver Maple 56 

Box Elder or Ash-leaved Maple 56 

Dogwood 57 

Black Gum 57 

Sweet Gum '. 57 

Locust or Yellow Locust 57 

Redbud 58 

Honey Locust 58 

Mimosa Tree 58 

Kentucky Coffee Tree 59 

Crape Myrtle 59 

Evergreen Cherry or Mock Orange 59 

China Tree 60 

Umbrella Tree 60 

Yellowwood 61 

Chestnut 61 

Beech 62 

Hop Hornbeam 62 

Oaks 62 

Live Oak 63 

Laurel Oak 63 

Water Oak 64 

Willow Oak 64 

Shingle Oak 65 

While Oak 65 

Swamj) Chestnut Oak 60 

Red Oak 66 

Sc;, rlet Oak 67 

Black Oak 67 



CONTENTS. 9 

PAGE 

Spanish Oak '68 

Pin Oak 63 

Ginkgo 68 

Sycamore 69 

Oriental Plane 69 

Poplars 70 

Lombardy Poplar 70 

Bolle Poplar 70 

Balsam Poplar 70 

Necklace Poplar 71 

Carolina Poplar 71 

Golden Bark Willow 71 

Trees suitable for very dry soils 72 

Trees suitable for very wet soils 72 

List of Publications 73 






ILLUSTRATIONS 






TLATE FACING PAGE 

I. Gothic arches of elms. Four rows. Green Street, Augusta, Ga. . . . 15 
II. A, Young tulip poplar, showing pyramidal shaped crown and un- 
divided stem; B, Bad pruning and neglect. One-half of the 
trunk is dead from sun-scald. The crown is filled with par- 
tially dead stubs from which the bark has fallen, caused by bad 
pruning. The swollen ring just below the crown also shows 
bad pruning when the stem was lengthened 20 

III. Forked elm split under weight of sleet. It can be drawn together 

by a bolt in the position of the dotted line. Forks which show 
the least split should at once be drawn close by a bolt 24 

IV. A, Well-planted maple two years after being set out. A small speci- 

men with good roots. Only slight crown pruning was re- 
quired and growth began at once. Tree is boxed to protect 
stem from sun-scald; B, Flattened crown of oak, the usual 

shape assumed when heavily topped 26 

V. A, Water oak, the second year after planting. Such heavy topping 
entirely alters the natural shape of the crown in many species 
and retards growth several years; B, Stag-headed tree. The 
trunk is too long for the size of the crown. The crown should 
be lowered by pruning as indicated by lines. This tree is also 
suffering from general neglect and requires the removal of 
many dead limbs and sways, the filling of many cavities and 
the removal from the stem of the lowest adventitious shoots. . 28 
VI. Typical elm vase-shaped crown formed of many ascending stems . . 46 
VII. A, Paulonia six years old, 20 feet high, globose crown. A very 
rapidly growing tree with dense foliage and a tropical appear- 
ance, but since it is short lived and becomes ragged in old age, 
it is not desirable for general use; B, Well developed sugar 
maple in middle age. This shape is characteristic of trees 

which have not been topped 54 

VIII. Southern maples showing ascending habit of trees planted close 

together. In a few years every other tree should be removed 

to give necessary growing space and to prevent deformities.. 56 

IX. A finely developed chestnut tree in flower, one of the most desirable 

of the large-sized shade trees for western North Carolina. 

Courtesy of U. S. Forest Service 62 

X. Row of lombardy poplars with narrowly conical crowns and erect 
branches. It can be effectively used for a certain class of 
planting, especially where it is desirablo to secure a quick 
shade, since the growth is extremely rapid 70 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 11 

FIGURES PAGE 

1. Correct way of removing a small branch A, or a large branch B. No 

stub should be left 23 

2. Wrong way of cutting a small branch A, or a large branch B, where 

a stub is left. Such stubs die and produce hollows 33 

3. In pruning large branches, especially on trees which are past their 

youth, and whose powers of sprouting from cut branches is re- 
duced, they should be pruned so as to leave a living branch grow- 
ing from the end of the stub. This branch will usually maintain 
sufficient growth in the stub to cause the healing of the wound 
where the large branch was removed 24 

4. Hollow snags should be cut close to the live branch from which they 

spring, as at AB. If the hollow penetrates the live branch it 
should either be filled with cement or with a wooden plug and 
painted, after the snag is removed 24 

5. Since there is danger of large limbs splitting and tearing the bark 

loose from the tree, it is preferable to cut them twice. AB 
shows the position of the first cut, an undercut being first made 
with a hatchet, the branch then sawed off from above. The stub 
is then sawed off smoothly at CD as close as possible to the line 
of sap flow 25 

6. Skeleton saw, pruning saw, with tapering frame, for use in narrow 

space. For hand use 26 

7. Pruning saw for heavy work 27 

8. Pruning hook and saw. Can be used either with or without pole. 

Saw blade is quickly removed and the pole shears can be used 
alone. Shears can also be secured without the saw 27 

9. Adjustable pole pruning saw. Adapted for sawing by hand or at- 

tached to a pole. The handle, which has a socket for use with 
pole, is adjustable for convenience of using at different angles. 
Blade 18 inches long 27 

10. Street 65 feet wide. Single row of trees in middle. Ornamental 

trees can be alternated with standard shade trees 34 

11. Street 60 feet wide. Single lateral row of trees on each side, either 

standard shade trees; or standard shade trees alternating with 
ornamental trees, or with broad leaf evergreen trees 34 

12. Street 100 feet wide. Single lateral rows and single middle row. 

Ornamental trees or ornamental trees alternating with the same 
standard shade trees used on the lateral rows can be planted in 
the middle row 34 

13. Street 100 feet wide. Double lateral rows, the trees in the rows 

arranged quincunxially or alternately 34 

14. Alternate planting 34 

15. Opposite planting 34 

16. Street 125 feet wide. Two lateral rows of trees arranged alternately, 

one row of standard shade trees, the other of ornamental trees. . 36 



12 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FIGt'RES PAGE 

17. Street 150 feet wide. One lateral row on each side and two middle 

rows. (Arrangement of Green street, Augusta, Ga. See Plate I.) 36 

IS. Street 150 feet wide. One lateral row of standard shade trees on 
each side; three middle rows, the outer rows standard shade 
trees, the middle row ornamental trees 36 



SHADE TEEES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

By W. W. Ashe. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Shade trees should be regarded as a necessity on the streets of the 
cities and towns of North Carolina. They lessen the heat and glare of the 
long hot summer days without checking the cooling southern breezes, and 
filter from the air a large portion of the dust which rises from the streets 
and roads. Nor must their aesthetic qualities be overlooked. Towns 
fortunate enough to have shaded narks and a WppU lnnrr\oro^\ ttW+t-i -nnn+i-r 



ERRATA. 

On page 30, line 16, octandra should read hippocastanum. 

On page 31, lines 11 and 14 of table, insert octandra after Aesculus; in line 

13, octandra should be hippocastanum. 
On page 43, line 6, 20 should read 30; line 13, 15 should read 25. 
On page 54, line 7, octandra should read hippocastanum. 



tlieir great number, it is exceptional when most satisfactory results cannot 
be secured by their use. Only a few species thrive under the artificial 
conditions which exist on paved streets. In most species such situations 
are too unnatural, though they may be healthy trees and well suited for 
unpaved streets as well as for roads and parks. In many localities the 
existence of insect pests or destructive diseases prevent the use of what 
might otherwise prove most desirable trees. Even when a species may 
be able to grow on a paved street, other conditions may determine its 
unfitness. For example, only forms with narrow crowns or ascending 
branches, or small species, are adapted to narrow streets or when the 
buildings impinge closely upon the planting line. 



>, 



12 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FIGURES PAGE 

17. Street 150 feet wide. One lateral row on each side and two middle 

rows. (Arrangement of Green street, Augusta, Ga. See Plate I.) 36 

18. Street 150 feet wide. One lateral row of standard shade trees on 

each side; three middle rows, the outer rows standard shade 
trees, the middle row ornamental trees 36 



SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

By W. W. Ashe. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Shade trees should be regarded as a necessity on the streets of the 
cities and towns of North Carolina. They lessen the heat and glare of the 
long hot summer days without checking the cooling southern breezes, and 
filter from the air a large portion of the dust which rises from the streets 
and roads. Nor must their aesthetic qualities be overlooked. Towns 
fortunate enough to have shaded parks and streets bordered with neatly 
kept rows of trees possess an intrinsic asset. Many towns in North Caro- 
lina derive a large portion of their income from summer or winter visitors 
and the street tree contributes not a little to producing the conditions 
most agreeable to these guests. 

It is very important to consider, in making a choice of a shade tree, 
its adaptability to the conditions and fitness for the purposes for which it 
is to be used. It is necessary to choose only those species which are 
suited to the local soil and moisture conditions. This does not by any 
means restrict the choice to local species. Some of the most desirable 
species are introduced either from other parts of the United States or 
from other countries. But, until a tree has been thoroughly tested by 
trial and its capacities and limitations locally determined, it is preferable 
to avoid its use as a street tree. The best success can generally be ob- 
tained from some of the well known native species and, on account of 
their great number, it is exceptional when most satisfactory results cannot 
be secured by their use. Only a few species thrive under the artificial 
conditions which exist on paved streets. In most species such situations 
are too unnatural, though they may be healthy trees and well suited for 
unpaved streets as well as for roads and parks. In many localities the 
existence of insect pests or destructive diseases prevent the use of what 
might otherwise prove most desirable trees. Even when a species may 
be able to grow on a paved street, other conditions may determine its 
unfitness. For example, only forms with narrow crowns or ascending 
branches, or small species, are adapted to narrow streets or when the 
buildings impinge closely upon the planting line. 



16 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

Species with greater spread of crown can be used to advantage only 
when there is ample space for their development. Some species, while 
admirably suited for formal avenues or use in parks or on estates, or 
even for central planting in broad parking strips, are unsuited, on account 
of their habit or exacting requirements, for general street or row use. 
In one case, as along a macadam road, an early leafing and dense foliaged 
species may be desirable. Its shade will tend to preserve the moisture 
in the road bed and thus maintain it. On an unpaved earth road or street 
which tends to remain muddy, a thin foliaged species whose leafage 
appears late will be more serviceable. Although evergreens are seldom 
desirable on highways, their use may be found appropriate in certain 
towns used as resorts where it is necessary to secure green foliage during 
the winter. 

Every condition which can in any way affect a tree should be con- 
sidered before it is accepted for extensive planting in any locality, or be- 
fore it is used under a condition in which it has not already been pre- 
viously given full trial and found satisfactory. Trees on streets, roads 
and in parks and other public grounds are not of temporary interest. 
They are largely planted for the future and, if judiciously selected, 
rightly planted and carefully attended, their period of usefulness and 
range of beauty may be prolonged throughout several generations. The 
elms of New England, the maples and buckeyes of New York and the 
Middle West, and the oaks of the South, which constitute the chief attrac- 
tion of the streets of many of the small towns, are the product of several 
decades and the men who planted them frequently failed to see them 
attain their glorious perfection. 

Native species, whose health, longevity and value have already been 
tested and are fully known, are usually the best subjects for planting; 
and it is likewise true that local-grown material, when nursery raised, is 
usually more suitable than that from a distance. In all cases trees should 
be accepted only from firms whose stock has recently been inspected by 
authorities of their respective states for dangerous insects and destructive 
diseases; and no consignment, even when shipped under the inspection 
certificate, which shows traces of disease or is infested with injurious 
insects, should ever be accepted. 

TIME TO PLANT. 

When the choice of a species has beeD made and its suitability for local 
conditions determined, material for planting should be secured that it 
may be ready Fur planting at the proper season. At the same time the 



METHOD OF PLANTING. 17 

holes should be properly placed and if the situation will permit, they 
should be dug. It is not uncommon to see a large proportion of nicely 
shaped and apparently thrifty young trees die the first season after 
planting either because the planting was not properly done or was made 
at an unfavorable season. Throughout North Carolina early spring is 
the time when successful planting is most assured. Fall planting is ex- 
tensively advocated in the north, but the conditions in the southeast are 
not at all favorable for rooting at this season. Not only is the weather so 
warm and dry during the autumn that the roots are likely to dry while 
material is in transit, but the low rainfall period which terminates the 
long, warm, dessicating summer and autumn, leaves the soil too deficient 
in moisture to assure a renewal of root growth before winter, even though 
the specimens are well watered when set out. 

Planting can begin, however, very early in the spring, the opening of 
the maple buds usually marking the beginning of the planting season. 
Its earliness varies in different portions of the State (if the unfolding 
of the maple buds is taken as the index) from the last of February in the 
southeastern portion of the State to the middle of March in the higher 
mountains. Planting can be continued until the leaves are nearly grown, 
but further delay lessens the chance of success. A few species are exact- 
ing in regard to the time at which they must be planted. Most of the 
deciduous, broad-leafed trees — oaks, elms, lindens, maples, and true pop- 
lars, and others which have numerous fine, fibrous roots — can be planted 
at any time during the spring with every assurance of success. A few 
species, however, are more exacting. The magnolias, including the 
cucumber tree, large-leaved magnolias, as well as the evergreen species 
and the closely related yellow poplar or tulip tree, require transplanting 
very late in the spring, just at the time when the buds are beginning to 
open. These trees are deficient in fibrous roots, most of their roots being 
thick and fleshy. Unless moved just at the time when root growth is 
taking place, success is doubtful. The black gum also requires to be 
handled in late spring; and all evergreens, both broad-leafed species like 
the holly, bays, mock orange, and evergreen oaks, as well as the conif- 
erous evergreens, the pines, cedars and firs, are best moved late in the 
spring just before the period of active growth begins. 

METHOD OF PLANTING. 

Holes for planting should be prepared in advance of the proposed 

planting time so that when the season is favorable there will be no cause 

for delay. More or less care is required in the preparation of the holes 

according to the natural fertility of the soil and its adaptability to tree 



18 SHADE TREES EOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

growth. The more unfavorable the conditions and the poorer the soil 
the greater care should be taken in its preparation. For park and estate 
planting, where the roots of the tree have ample room for spreading, a 
hole 3 feet square and 2 feet deep is ample for small trees. If the soil is 
naturally of only fair quality, the top layer should be placed in a separate 
pile from the raw subsoil, and should be well mixed with leaf mold, if 
such is available, and placed in the bottom of the hole as a bed on which 
to place the tree. A portion of the subsoil should also be mixed with 
leaf mold, or, if this is not available, well decomposed manure, or litter, 
can be substituted, and used for filling the hole about the newly planted 
tree. A tree planted in such a manner will make rapid and sustained 
growth, and while under the best conditions such care and expense are not 
necessary, the excellent health of the specimen will usually compensate 
for the additional cost. As the conditions for tree growth become less 
propitious, as along the paved streets of towns where the soil moisture is 
frequently insufficient, the greatest care must be exercised if healthy, 
vigorous specimens are to be obtained. On paved streets, where it is de- 
sired to secure ultimately large specimens, the planting hole can well be 
made even larger than 3 by 3 feet, either by increasing the width on all 
sides or extending one side so as to have the greatest length paralleling 
the curbing. The earth in all such cases, unless naturally very fertile, 
should have well decayed leaf mold or litter added to it in the proportion 
of about one-third. 

The most essential requirement for the healthy growth of trees, so far 
as the roots are concerned, is a uniform, though not excessive supply of 
soil moisture. Some soils, on account of their situation or character, 
are naturally more subject to drying than others. The addition of the 
well rotted leaf mold to such soils not only adds a store of easily available 
plant food, but greatly increases their water-carrying capacity, enabling 
them to store large quantities of rain water for the future needs of the 
tree. At the same time, soils which are wet are apt to be sour, especially 
when heavy clays, and this condition is fully as unfavorable for healthy 
growth as when there is a deficiency in the moisture supply. Such sour 
soils are usually compact clays and it is often difficult to properly under- 
drain them. Slow and unhealthy growth and small yellowish foliage 
are an excellent indication of a soil's being sour, if it is wet. The addi- 
tion of a small amount of lime to the soil is a temporary corrective, 
although drainage is necessary for permanency. Pin oak, willow oak, red 
maple, Mack gum and sweet gum are more suitable, for sour soils than 
other Bpecies. White oak, red oak, black oak, sugar maple, linden, yellow 
poplar and cucumber are intolerant of such conditions. The addition of 



■■ 



METHOD OF PLANTING. 19 

woods litter facilitates the drainage of such a sour soil. The hole, how- 
ever, under such conditions, should be several inches deeper than would 
be required in a lighter and more porous earth. 

Specimens should also receive careful attention previous to planting. 
When shipped from a distant nursery, they should be unbundled, and if 
a long period, as of several weeks, is to elapse before planting, they 
should be heeled in. This is done by digging a trench one side of which 
is very sloping, and the depth of which is from 18 inches to 2 feet, accord- 
ing to the size of the trees. The specimens should be distributed along 
this trench on the sloping side, the roots spread, the trench re-filled and 
the earth firmly packed. If a suitable, cool shady place is selected, as on 
the north side of a building, or at the base of a north sloping hill for heel- 
ing in, leafing can be deferred for several weeks after the normal time for 
opening. When it is necessary to keep specimens for only a few days be- 
fore planting, they can safely be placed in any cool, shady place — a cellar 
being an excellent place. Care should be taken, if the weather is warm, 
to lessen the danger of the roots heating by opening the bagging or straw 
in which they are wrapped. On the other hand, if the weather is cold, 
precautions must be taken to prevent the roots from freezing and becom- 
ing dry. They will seldom freeze in a deep, well-walled cellar, or they 
can be covered with straw. When planting time comes the roots of the 
trees which are unpacked, or taken from the heeling-in trench, should be 
puddled by clipping in a thick mud until well coated. During windy or 
warm weather the roots should be given additional protection, after un- 
packing for planting, by covering with sacking and having an occasional 
bucket of water thrown over them. The better the condition of the roots 
when the tree is planted and the larger the number of live fibrous roots 
the greater is the probability of rapid growth. 

In the selection of specimens only those should be chosen which have 
reasonably straight stems and well-formed crowns. The larger the speci- 
men, the better developed and more shapely should be the stem and 
crown. Crooks in the stems of very small trees are soon out-grown, 
while pruning soon corrects juvenile deformities of the crown. Such 
defects are more slowly corrected in larger specimens. It is also necessary 
to see that the roots of specimens are in good order. Before planting 
these should be pruned with a sharp knife and the broken roots removed. 
Very large scars of this kind, or large root wounds, especially in species 
with thin sapwood, where the heart is exposed, should be well painted 
with either a coal tar or a thick linseed oil paint. This will lessen root 
rots which frequently ascend and result in hollow stems. The crown and 
stem should also be pruned at the time of planting. It is necessary, in the 



20 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

first place, to reduce the size of the crown to compensate for the reduced 
root surface. This is far more necessary in forest-grown specimens, the 
roots of which are frequently badly mutilated in lifting than in nursery- 
grown stock, the roots of which are more compact and better provided 
with fibrous rootlets. The severity of pruning required varies with the 
species. Easily rooting species, like willows, true poplars, elms, and 
maples, usually require, if nursery-grown stock, only a slight reduction 
in the crown surface; while those species that root more slowly, as the 
oaks, magnolias, yellow poplar, cucumber, hickories and walnuts, require 
considerable crown-pruning. 

Crown-pruning, no matter how severe, should, in general conform to 
the shape the tree is to assume. Species which form deliquescent stems 
like those of the elm or maple (see PL IV, A) can be topped, but the top- 
ping should take place at the height at which it is desired to form the 
base of the crown. Species which do not produce deliquescent stems, but 
whose growth is excurrent, consisting of a central shaft from which subor- 
dinate branches spring, like that of the yellow poplar (PI. II, A), should 
generally not be topped at all. Topping of such species as these is likely 
to result in the formation of several stems or a forked stem and irregu- 
larity of shape. It is a better practice to confine the pruning of trees of 
this class to the removal or partial removal of lateral branches and not to 
cut back the main leader at all. The base of the crown is determined in 
trees of this class subsequent to planting, by the removal of the lower 
branches. See also PI. V, A. 

It is usually preferable to plant small trees from •£ to 1 inch thick, at 
the height of a man's shoulder, and from 6 to 8 feet in height. The cost 
of handling trees of this size is much less than that of larger stock; they 
can usually be removed with far better roots than larger trees; and on 
account of their more rapid growth, they frequently outgrow larger 
trees whose roots are not so well preserved. 

SUN SCALD OF YOUNG TREES. 

Small trees whose stems have been shaded, as those from very close nur- 
sery rows, and forest-pulled specimens, especially of the sun-tender spe- 
cies with their smooth bark, are subject to sun scald. This results from 
the killing of the cambium or inner bark on the southern or southwestern 
side of the tree by the beat of summer and autumn suns. The first indi- 
cation of sun scald is the cracking of the bark in vertical, and then in 
cro earns, as it becomes dry and brittle. In the later stages it fre- 
quently peels off or curls up in long strips, exposing the sapwood, which 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN NO. l6. PLATE II 



o W 




o < J 



h H < u 



z « a 



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METHOD OF PLANTING. 21 

soon dries and seems dead. The blisters from sun scald frequently extend 
from near the ground to well within the crown of the tree, and in the 
worst cases a scar is left covering the entire southern half of the stem, 
there being no living wood within the scar (PI. II, B). Sometimes in 
very small, rapidly growing trees these long scars, will heal over by 
growth from the edges of the bark surrounding the wound. More fre- 
quently they never heal, but sapwood decays on the scar and a hollow 
forms in the trunk of the tree. 

The species most subject to sun scald are those with thin, smooth bark, 
especially those which naturally grow in dense, shady woods, as maple, 
beech, linden, tulip poplar, and some of the magnolias; while the oaks, 
elms, and ashes are seldom affected. As trees, even of the tenderest 
species, become older and the bark becomes rough, they lose their sensi- 
tiveness and no longer sun scald. Small trees of tender species, unless 
they have been hardened by being grown in open nursery rows, require 
, a shade protection on the southern sides. When a guard of wooden slats 
is used, that is sufficient. When no slat guard is used, a cheap triangular 
shade guard can be made of one solid, vertical board, which is placed to 
the south side of the tree. A few rows of horizontal slats form the two 
other sides, being nailed where they meet to a vertical post (PI. IV, A). 
This guard should be anchored securely by means of stakes driven deeply 
in the ground, to which it is nailed. The tree, as has been explained, 
should be fastened to it by leather or cloth bands across the top to pre- 
vent rubbing. A guard of this kind is preferable to wrapping the stem 
with straw or sacking. 

Wounds resulting from sun scald should be treated like other wounds. 
The loose and diseased portions of bark, under which the inner bark has 
darkened or discolored, should be cut away until healthy tissue is exposed 
around the entire wound. The surface of the exposed wood and the edge 
of the living bark should be well covered with a linseed oil paint and the 
stem of the tree suitably shaded to prevent further extension of the 
injury. In case further blistering takes place the dead bark should again 
be cut away. Such a wound, though large, will, if carefully managed, 
heal on a small tree. 

Suckers frequently appear from the base of trees which have been badly 
sun blistered. They should be removed at once. Sometimes, following 
very heavy pruning, which admits direct sun-light, sun scald takes place 
on the upper part of the trunk which has been exposed. Such. wounds 
should be cared for as suggested, and heavy crown pruning subsequently 
avoided for such species. 



22 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

PROTECTION AFTER PLANTING. 

Small trees along streets and roads should be protected by a guard of 
some kind, either like that described for protecting from sun scald or 
similar to one of those described below. Trees eight inches or more in 
diameter which are too large to box and yet require protection from bit- 
ing or rubbing of animals or mutilation of other kinds can be protected by 
wrapping about the lower part of the stem a piece of small mesh galvan- 
ized wire netting. The netting should be 6 feet or more wide, the lower 
selvage dropping to within a few inches of the ground. The raw edges 
should lap several inches, permitting loosening and readjusting with the 
growth of the tree. The netting should hang loosely from short wires 
fastened to staples driven into the trunk a few inches above the upper 
selvage. More ornamental guards made of wrought iron can be pur- 
chased. They are only suitable for small trees and are no more service- 
able than those made of wood. A four-sided box 5 or 6 feet high and 
several inches larger at the base than at the top, made of narrow vertical 
slats, is not only a cheap but a durable and satisfactory guard. All 
guards and the bands fastening them to the trees should be examined at 
frequent intervals, especially after heavy storms to prevent the bark being 
seriously rubbed or cut by them. Deep abrasions from rubbing not only 
cause permanent disfigurement but often greatly impair the health of the 
specimens. Hitching rings or sign boards should not be fastened to 
trees nor should light, power or telephone companies be permitted to 
anchor poles to them by girdling them with wire. 

PRUNING. 

Time to Prune. — Small branchlets of broad-leaf trees can be removed 
at any season of the year. The bark on such branchlets is growing 
rapidly and the wound will usually heal during the following spring. 

Large, live branches, whether cut close to the stem or partially re- 
moved by cutting at some distance from it, should only be pruned during 
late autumn, winter or early in spring before the sap is active. 

Small Branchlets are removed or pruned with a knife, shears, tree 
pruner or sometimes with a saw (figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9). The cut should be 
clean and smooth and made without tearing the bark loose from the wood 
below the cut. When a branch is removed from the stem, no matter how 
small the branch is, the cut should be as close as possible to the bark of 
the stem (figs. 1 and 2). Very small branches in the crown, which are 
merely cut back in pruning for shape or to secure thicker foliage, can be 
rut iit, any convenient point, but larger branches should be cut only at the 
point where they leave the stem or another branch, 



v.H* 



PRUNING. 



23 



Large Branches. — In removing large branches entirely, the cut should 
be made just as close to the stem as possible, even cutting through some 
of the bark of the stem in making it. No limb should ever be cut in such 
a manner as to leave any neck, snag, stump or projection of any kind 
beyond the trunk of the tree. Large limbs which are only partially re- 
moved should be pruned back to a sound, vigorous branchlet which 
springs from it (fig. 3). Descarts has well called the branchlet which is 
left the sap lifter. It must be sufficiently large to maintain activity in 
the cambium between M and N, (fig. 3). This insures the early forma- 
tion of a callus where the cut A-B was made, and the occlusion of the 
wound. If this sap lifter is not left, the cambium on the stub M-N dies, 





Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

Fig. 1. — Correct way of removing a small branch A, or a large branch B. No stub 
should be left. 

Fig. 2. — Wrong way of cutting a small branch A, or large branch B, where a stub is 
left. Such stubs die and produce hollows. 

either entirely or back a considerable distance from its extremity, on ac- 
count of the lack of circulation of sap through it. A callus then begins to 
form as a collar around or near the base of the projecting stub and grad- 
ually extends up the stub, sometimes, if the stub decays rapidly, com- 
pletely healing over at the end but more frequently failing to close on 
account of the incurving of the callus into the hollow as it deepens 
(fig. 4). When this occurs, an opening remains at the end of the callus, 
forming a hollow, as shown in the right hand tree in the frontispiece, in 
which water collects, accelerating the decay already taking place in the 
wood of the stub, and gradually extending the decay of the heartwood of 
the tree below the hollow and to a slight distance above it. There is a 



24 



SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 



limit to the distance such a callus will grow, as circulation of sap must be 
maintained through it. After extending a certain distance beyond the 
direct line of sap flow, its growth becomes slow and finally almost ceases, 
being just sufficient to maintain a thin tissue of live inner bark on the 
callus. In willows and in those trees which form pollards, even large 
branches can be cut and sprouts will grow from the end of the stub, which 
will soon heal over. Other trees when young, among them the cork, elm 
and haekberry, can be pollarded to some extent. 

All exposed wood of a wound more than an inch in diameter should be 
painted with coal tar. Since there is danger of large branches splitting 
and tearing the bark lose below the cut, it is better to cut them twice as 
shown in fig. 5. An undercut made with a hatchet or ax lessens the 
possibility of the bark being torn loose. 





£ -■■'" ".::^-;vp[<g 




Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 3. — In pruning large branches, especially on trees which are past their youth, 
and whose powers of sprouting from cut branches is reduced, they should be pruned 
so as to leaye a living branch growing from the end of the stub. This branch will 
usually maintain sufficient growth in the stub to cause the healing of the wound where 
the large branch was removed. 

Fig. 4. — Hollow snags should be cut close to the live branch from which they spring, 
as at AH. If the hollow penetrates the live branch it should either be filled with cement 
or with a wooden plug and painted, after the snag Is removed. 



PRUNING FOR SHAPE. 

The crowns of newly planted trees frequently assume irregular shapes 
after a year or two of. growth. Such irregularities are to be corrected by 
pruning the crown several years after permanent planting, when it is 
possible to determine what shape is being formed. After pruning to 
shape, the crown should be subsequently examined at intervals of three 
or four years and tendencies towards irregularity remedied, when they 
consist either in the prolongation or overgrowth of one or two branches, 
or in the formation of a shape different from that of other trees in the 
same line. All trees in the same line should have the same shape, or 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN NO. l6. PLATE TIT 




■:■>■ 



.■?■ 






FORKED ELM SPLIT UNDER WEIGHT OF SLEET. IT CAN BE DRAWN TOGETHER BV 
A BOLT IN THE POSITION OF THE DOTTED LINE. FORKS WHICH SHOW THE LEAST 
SPLIT SHOULD AT ONCE BE DRAWN CLOSE BY A BOLT. 



PRUNING. 



25 



approximately so; fastigiate and round crown of the same species should 
not be intermixed. 

Forked stems are to be avoided in all trees and especially in elms, which 
are likely to split in large forks (PL III). This is remedied by pruning 
at the time the tree is planted and within a few years thereafter. A mush- 
room shape which water oaks especially (PL IV, B) tend to assume when 
planted as large-topped poles is equally as undesirable. This is altered 
by cutting back the upper horizontal branches so as to force the formation 
of a leader. In such a case the leader should either spring from the 
stem or very close to it and should not be permitted to develop from a 
horizontal branch at a considerable distance from the stem. Feathered 
stems which elms and other trees also occasionally form are not de- 



u 



\ 



\ 




Fig. 5. 
Fig. 5. — Since there is danger of large limbs splitting and tearing the bark loose from 
the tree, it is preferable to cut them twice. AB shows the position of the first cut, an 
undercut being first made with a hatchet, the branch then sawn off from above. The 
stub is then sawn off smoothly at CD as close as possible to the line of sap flow. 

sirable. They are remedied by removing quite a number of the feather 
branchlets with light topping at the same time in order to force a 
stronger growth in the remaining lateral branches. The development of 
more than one leader in trees which form a pyramidal crown should be 
checked by cutting out all except the most vigorous and best-shaped leader. 
On the other hand, in elms, lindens, ashes and maples, it is desirable to 
secure a great number of well spaced ascending branches and no single 
leader. 

The tendency to form irregularities in shape is checked by clipping 
small branchlets or twigs while the aberration is yet insignificant. By 
clipping those whose development is not desired, the growth of the others 



26 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

is strengthened and their size increased. In this way it is possible, with- 
out ever removing any large branch, not only to secure perfect symmetry 
of crown but to direct the crown into almost any shape desired. Pole 
shears or clippers (tree pruners) are most convenient for this purpose (see 
fig. 8). The length of the stem should be secured early by removing the 
lowest branches. Large branches which would subsequently require re- 
moval on account of being too low on the stem should not be permitted to 
develop. They are more quickly removed when small; and swellings are 
less likely to result in healing. 

PRUNING TO THICKEN FOLIAGE. 

This is done by clipping the ends of the larger lateral branchlets as well 
as the leader. This checks the increase of the crown in size, both in 
height and in diameter, and stimulates the growth of interior branchlets 
with consequent denser leaf cover. While this is especially advisable with 
evergreen broad-leaf trees, it is also occasionally necessary with deciduous 

11 




Fig. 6. 
Pig. 6. — Skeleton saw, pruning saw, with tapering frame, for use in narrow spaces. 
For hand use. 

species which have made rapid growth, forming lank stems and long in- 
ternodes. Poplars, tulips, and sycamores, as well as other deciduous 
trees, are frequently much benefitted by having their foliage thus thick- 
ened, as well as hollies, evergreen magnolia, evergreen cherry, etc. This 
is also true of the broad-leaf conifer, ginkgo, which is inclined to form an 
open crown. Few of the other conifers are open to such treatment. It 
cannot be done in the pines, or larches, or cedrus, but in firs, hemlocks, 
spruce and retinosporia, the foliage can be thickened by clipping one-half 
of the season's growth in early summer immediately after the spring 
growth has been made. Libocedrus and the native cedars and arbor- 
vitaes can be clipped but not beyond the green spray. 

PRUNING LARGE CROWNS TO REDUCE THEIR SIZE. 

When this is done and it is desired to preserve the natural shape of the 
crown, both lateral and ascending branches should be equally shortened. 
The crown is broadened by heavy topping and narrowed by cutting back 
lateral brandies. It is to be remembered that the shape of Ihc crown 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN NO. l6. PLATE IV 




P * 




S 9. 



►J £ 



S o 



2 3 o 






<■'".'©;.■> 

" "^~«.»&L- ; ;;I' 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 7. — Pruning saw for heavy work. 

Fig. 8. — Pruning hook and saw. Can he used either with or without pole. Saw 
Made is quickly removed and the pole shears can he used alone. Shears can also be 
secured without the saw. 

Fig. 9. — Adjustable pole pruning saw. Adapted for sawing by hand or attached to 
a pole. The handle, which has a socket for use with pole, is adjustable for convenience 
of using at different angles. Blade IS inches long. 







28 SHADE TREES TOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

naturally broadens considerably with age with most species which have 
deliquescent stems. After the height growth is made, the vitality of the 
tree is expended in extending the lateral branches, changing the shape of 
the crown from oval or conical in early youth to broadly oval in middle 
age and dome-shaped in old age. For this reason in mature trees which 
are not over high more lateral trimming is usually advisable than trim- 
ming in the apex of the crown. 

Trees whose boles are unduly long in proportion to the crown should be 
topped. The topping, accompanied with a small amount of lateral lop- 
ping, will frequently force the development of shoots on the upper part 
of the bole from dormant buds. It is advisable to permit the growth of 
these shoots since they assist in lowering the center of gravity, trees of 
this kind being top heavy and likely to wind fall. Many of the old oaks 
and hickories forming parts of groves on public grounds, parks, etc., 
which were originally forest trees, are of this class, being tall and having 
the boles too long in proportion to the length of the crown, which, more- 
over, are very wide-spread (PL V, B). As their comrades have died, they 
have been left isolated and unprotected from the wind, while their tall 
stems and large crowns make them liable to windfall, which has still 
further thinned them. On account of the freer entrance of wind and sun 
the ground becomes very dry and the tree begins dying in the upper part 
of the crown. When the soil of such a grove has become decidedly defi- 
cient in humus, either from the burning of the leaves and grass annually 
or because the leaves are removed, cultivation for several years and the 
plowing under of one or two crops of cow peas, or clover will be of great 
benefit in re-establishing the conditions necessary for healthy growth. 
In figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9 are illustrated various tools that can be used to ad- 
vantage in pruning different trees. 

CAEE OF NEWLY PLANTED TEEES. 
For some weeks newly planted trees should be watered regularly, if 
the soil is very dry, and subsequently if droughts occur during the sum- 
mer and autumn of the first season. Usually trees will be well rooted by 
the end of the first growing season so that watering will seldom be re- 
quired in subsequent seasons. The earth around the tree should be cul- 
tivated once or twice a season for several years to assist in the preservation 
of soil moisture and to add to the permeability of the soil so that all of 
the rainfall will be absorbed. Mulching with straw or grass cut from 
lawns will also tend to maintain the soil moisture. Young trees, however, 
should not be mulched with manure for the first few years at least and, 
if i In oil has been properly prepared, they will not require it. 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN NO. l6. PLATE V 




2 3 



X H £ 



5 g 2 



« w 



K 2 K 




O H £ 






I 



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS EOR STREET PLANTING. 29 

Slender trees, especially evergreens, should be firmly tied by means of 
leather thongs to stakes deeply driven into the ground. If it is necessary 
to protect the tree from animals or there is danger from sun scald, the tree 
should be boxed as is described on page 21. The necessary pruning of the 
tree should be done before it is planted. It should be examined several 
times during the first season to determine whether the specimen is suffer- 
ing from drought, whether the stake support or guard is secure, whether 
there is rubbing of the fastenings, and whether there are present any 
insects like scales, which are very injurious. The subsequent health and 
vigor of the tree will amply repay such care bestowed upon it for the first 
few years after planting. 

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR STREET PLANTING. 
In selecting trees for street planting the following points should be 
considered : 

Width of walks and width of street. 
Size of tree and shape of crown. 

Ability to stand pruning where the tree cannot be permitted to attain 
full size. 

Age the tree attains under the local conditions. 

Freedom from disease; objectionable insects; fruit, either large or 
stony or attractive to birds; dropping of twigs; objectionable odors. 
Suitability of tree to the local conditions of 
Drainage or water supply, 
Depth and quality of soil, 

Available root area, space and shape of root system, 
Smoke and chemical gasses from reduction plants, fertilizer fac- 
tories, etc. 
Date of leafing, of defoliation and winter habit. 
Ornamental characters, flowers, color of autumn foliage. 
The following trees are selected as being the most desirable for general 
street planting in towns and cities of North Carolina. When a tree is 
suited for only one or two sections of the State, the section or sections for 
which it is adapted are indicated by E. for eastern, M. for middle, and W. 
for the western portion; otherwise it may be considered as adapted to any 
part of the State. Trees having very large nuts, pulpy or juicy fruit or 
very objectionable qualities, have been excluded from this list, but will 
be found in the general list of shade trees. On account of the superiority 
of the trees in this list over other trees suitable for planting in this 
State, they will be referred to as standard shade trees. 



30 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

STANDAED SHADE TKEES FOE NOETH CAEOLINA. 

COMMON NAME. BOTANICAL NAME. DESCRIBED 

ON PAGE. 

Ashes. 

Biltmore ash W Fraxinus biltmoreana 45 

Green ash HI . E Fraxinus lanceolata 44 

"White ash W Fraxinus americana 45 

Swamp ash E Fraxinus profunda 44 

Box elder Acer negundo 56 

Chestnut Castanea dentata 61 

Elms. 

Cork or small leaf elm M. E. . . Ulmus alata 45 

White elm Ulmus americana 46 

Ginkgo Gingko bilaba 68 

Golden bark willow Salix alba vitellina 71 

Hackberry E Celtis mississippiensis 46 

Hop hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana 62 

Horse chestnut Aesculus octandra 54 

Kentucky coffee tree Gymnocladus dioica 59 

Lindens. 

European silver linden Tilia argentea 53 

Native lindens M. W Tilia 53 

Maples. 

Norway maple Acer platanoides 54 

Red maple Acer rubrum 55 

Silver maple Acer saccharinum 56 

Southern maple E. M Acer floridanum 54 

Sugar maple Acer saccharum 55 

Oaks. 

Black oak Quercus velutina 67 

Laurel oak E. W Quercus laurifolia 63 

Live oak E Quercus virginiana 63 

Pin oak W Quercus pahistris 68 

Red oak W Quercus rubra 66 

Scarlet oak M. W Quercus coccinea 67 

Shingle oak W Quercus imbricaria 65 

Southern red oak or 1 

„ . . , „, „ YQucrcus digitata 68 

Spanish oak M. E J 

Swamp chestnut oak Quercus michauxii 66 

Water oak M. E Quercus nigra 64 

White oak Quercus alba 65 

Willow oak M. E Quercus phellos 64 

Oriental plane Plalanus orientalis 69 

Paulonia Paulonia imperialis 43 

Poplars, 

Hollo poplar Populus alba bolleana 70 

<';iro!ina poplar E Populus delt.oides 71 

Lombardy poplar Populus nigra italica 70 

Necklace poplar Populus monilifera 71 



ORNAMENTAL TREES. 31 

DESCRIBED 
COMMON NAME. BOTANICAL NAME. 

ON PAGE. 

Sweet gum E Liquidambar 57 

Sycamore Platanus occidentalis 69 

Umbrella tree M. E Melia azedarach umbraculifera 60 

Yellow locust M. W Robinia pseudacacia 57 

Yellow or tulip poplar W Liriodendron tulipifera 50 

Yellowwood W Cladrastis lutea 61 

Of this number the following are adapted for planting only on very 
wide streets, on parking strips or along avenues, and are not recommended 
for general sidewalk planting on account of their large size, and spreading 
crowns, unless it is expected to trim them to keep them in bounds : white 
oak, live oak, red oak, black oak, swamp chestnut oak, southern red oak 
(Spanish oak), tulip poplar, sycamore, oriental plane, sweet gum. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES. 
Partly in addition to the above, there are a number of species having 
showy flowers, some of which admit of use alone as standard shade trees 
as indicated by being included in the above list; most of them, however, 
are not well suited for use alone, but are preferably used in alternation 
with standard shade trees, or for centre planting. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES HAVING SHOWY FLOWERS. 
COMMON NAME. BOTANICAL NAME. COLOR OF FLOWER. 

Lindens Tilia White or 

light colored. 

Kentucky coffee tree Gymnocladus dioica " 

Yellow locust Robinia pseudacacia " 

Yellowwood Cladrastis lulea " 

Catalpa (hardy) Catalpa speciosa 

Magnolia (evergreen) Magnolia foetida 

Cucumber tree Magnolia acuminata 

Mountain magnolia Magnolia fraseri 

Crape myrtle (white) Lagerstroemia indica 

Sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum 

Buckeye ( white) Aesculus " 

Rowan tree Pyrus americana 

Horse chestnut Aesculus octandra Red or pink. 

Buckeye (red) Aesculus ; . . . ■ " 

Mimosa Albizzia julibrissin 

Evergreen cherry Prunus caroliniana 

Redbud Cercis canadensis 

Crabapple Pyrus coronaria 

Crape myrtle (red) Lagerstroemia indica 

Paulonia Paulonia imperialis Lilac or purple. 

China tree Melia azedarach 



32 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

Several of these have large, fleshy fruit and can only be used on central 
parking strips or where they would not overhang pavements. 

AUTUMN FOLIAGE. 

In addition to the flowers, the foliage of many species assumes in 
autumn bright hues which renders it attractive. While in individual spec- 
imens there is occasionally deviation from the usual colors, the following 
list shows the common autumn coloring : 

Color of Autumn Foliage of Trees. 

COMMON NAME. BOTANICAL NAME. COLOR OF FOLIAGE. 

Maples Acer Shades of red 

and yellow. 

White oak Quercus alba . » Shades of red. 

Red oak Quercus rubra 

Swamp chestnut oak Quercus michauxii 

Dogwood Cornus florida 

Tulip poplar; tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera Shades of yellow. 

Black oak Quercus velutina 

Lindens Tilia 

Ashes Fraxinus 

Poplars Populus , 

Hickories Hicoria 

Chestnut Castanea d'entata 

Hop hornbeam Garpinus caroliniana 

Scarlet oak Quercus coccinea Tones of crimson. 

Sweet gum Liquidambar 

Black gum Nyssa sylvatica 

Pin oak Quercus palustris 

Elms Ulmus Dull yellow 

or brown. 

Willow oak Quercus phellos 

Sycamore and plane tree Platanus 

River birch Betula nigra 

OBJECTIONABLE TREES. 
The Otaheite or paper mulberry is a very objectionable tree, as it is 
small, short-lived, late in leafing and suckers badly. The cultivation of 
the Ailanthus has been tried in several towns and it has been found unsat- 
isfactory, both on account of the odor of the flowers of the male or stami- 
nate plants, and the abundance of its suckers. Catalpa is objectionable 
in Localities where attacked by caterpillars. Tilia europea (T. parvi- 
I'olia, etc.) is too small and short-lived. 



ARRANGEMENT OF TREES ON STREETS. 33 

AEEANGEMENT OP TEEES ON STEEETS. 

Streets of ordinary width, from 60 to 90 feet, are usually best treated by 
the planting of a single row of trees down each side of the street on the 
outer edge of the sidewalk (fig. 11). Occasionally there are difficulties in 
the way of successfully placing even small trees on the sidewalks of streets 
narrower than 60 feet, as when the buildings are several stories high and 
erected on the property line. In such a case an arrangement with a single 
middle row like that in fig. 10 might be advisable, especially on streets 
running east and west, where the trees planted on the south side of the 
street would be very largely cut off from sunlight, while those planted on 
the north side would be bent towards the street. In some portions of the 
streets of Southport there is a single row of live oaks down the middle of 
the street. 

Very wide streets often admit of more elaborate planting than a row of 
trees down each walk. A satisfactory way to treat a street 100 feet wide 
is a row on each sidewalk and a row on a narrow planting strip down the 
middle of the street (figs. 12, 13, 14 and 15). The principal streets of 
Columbia, S. C, are planted in this manner. The trees in the middle 
strip can either be standard shade trees of the same kind as the lateral 
rows or ornamental trees or standard trees alternating with ornamental 
trees. 

Streets from 120 to 150 feet can have the plantings arranged in several 
different ways. There can be a double row down each of the sidewalks 
which can be very broad, the row next to the property line being of 
a standard shade tree and the row next to the driveway being either of the 
same species or an ornamental tree. 

Another arrangement for a street of such width is one row down each 
sidewalk with a parking strip down the middle of the street with a double 
row of trees and a walk in the parking strip. Such an arrangement on a 
wide street gives a very handsome effect, as is shown in the frontispiece, 
a view of Green Street, Augusta, Ga, A yet wider street or one in which 
there is no need for such wide driveways can have a lateral row on each 
sidewalk and three or even four rows down a central parking strip, the 
central rows being standard shade trees of some size and dignity and the 
lateral rows carefully selected ornamental trees (figs. 16, 17 and 18). 

Drives along streams or water fronts can also, when of some width, be 
planted in double or triple rows. 

In each case a tree should be selected with due consideration for the 
width of the street and the distance between the houses and the planting 
line. 




B 



Fig. 13. 



^ 



a 



9 



§b 



n 



Fig. 14. 







©■ 



Fig. 15. 

Ornamental trees can 



FIG. 10. -Street 65 feet wide. Single row of trees In middle 
be alternated with standard shade trees. 

Fig. i 1. Streel 60 feel wide. Single lateral row of trees on each side, either standard 
shade trees; or standard shade trees alternating with ornamental trees, or with broad 
li .ii evergreen trees. 

Fro. I -. Si reel 1 no feel wide. Single lateral rows and single middle row. Orna- 
mental trees; or ornamental trees alternating with the same standard shade trees used 

on the lateral rows can be planted in the middle row. 

Fig 13. Streel 100 feel wide. Double lateral rows, the trees In the rows arranged 
qulncunxlally or alternately, 
Fig. it. • )pposl te planting. 
Fio. 15. Alternate planting. 



ARRANGEMENT OF TREES ON STREETS. 35 

Trees can be planted, when in double rows, either opposite each other 
or alternate in the rows. Alternate planting is better adapted for double 
rows on narrow planting strips since it permits the crowns to interlock in 
place of interfering. 

ARRANGEMENTS OF PLANTINGS. 

The usual practice of planting at one time the entire length of a 
street with the same species, all specimens of which are expected to reach 
maturity together, has some disadvantages. For a long period it is true 
the effect of the continuous uniform rows is faultless. The trees reach 
maturity about the same time, but they begin to decline irregularly, and 
each specimen is cut as it becomes necessary and a replant made. In this 
manner replanting extends over many years, and even though the same 
species be used for filling blanks, the original regularity will seldom 
again be attained. 

When some formality is desired, it is best to make an original planting 
of two species, one selected for a permanent tree and the other a short- 
lived, quickly growing tree planted alternately with the permanent spe- 
cies. The temporary tree will soon furnish shade and give some character 
to the street. When it reaches maturity or at the end of a fixed period, 
all specimens of this temporary species can be removed, and specimens of 
the permanent tree planted in their place. This will give two sets of trees 
of the same kind, differing in age by a fixed period. The younger series 
will be in its maturity when the older series is declining. The older series 
can then be entirely cut and replaced without affecting the continuity of 
the tree line or seriously impairing the shade. 

• By initiating and strictly adhering to such a plan, the species could at 
any two cutting periods be entirely changed, if found advisable, and that 
without interfering with the appearance of the trees or with the shade. 

The distance from the trees to the property line should be the same 
throughout the length of the street, unless the width of the walk changes. 
The spacing should be the same between all trees of the same kind so far 
as they extend on a street and should be determined : ( 1 ) By the species 
and the size and shape of its crown; (2) by the fertility of the soil, since 
the crown will attain smaller dimensions on poor than on fertile soils; 
(3) whether it is intended to permit the trees to attain their full size, as 
would usually be the case on parking strips, on wide walks, on residential 
streets where the houses are some distance from the property line, along 
wide avenues, river drives, etc. See figs. 16, 17 and IS. 

For aesthetic considerations, plantings along a street should be of one 
species, which should give character and tone to it. While it is unneces- 




Fig. 16. 



&$3 










Fig. 18. 

Fig. 16.- Street 125 feet wide. Two lateral rows of trues arranged alternately, one 
row of : tandard shade trees, the other of ornamental trees. 

l'ir,, 17. Stree! 150 Ceel wide. One lateral row on each side and two middle rows, 
(Arrangement of Green street, Augusta Ga. See PI. I.) 

I'k;. IK. Street 150 feel wide. f)ne lateral row of standard shade trees on each 
sWl'-: three middle rows, the outer rows standard shade trees, the middle row ornamental 
i n i 









ORNAMENTAL SPECIES WITH A STANDARD SHADE TREE. 37 

sary that the one species should extend the entire length of the street, it 
should be used at least for several blocks, and on short streets with wide 
vistas it is preferable that the same species should exist throughout. But 
while the association in alternate planting of two standard shade trees on 
a street is not deemed advisable and is seldom attempted, in the milder 
portions of this State, where there is such a large number of the choicest 
species from which to make selection, many of them highly ornamental 
either on account of flowers, bark or autumn foliage, two species can be 
planted together and alternated with the greatest success. This has been 
done on a small portion of Taylor Street in Columbia, S. C, and the re- 
sults are in every way artistic and satisfactory. There should be a strong 
contrast between the species either in size, color of foliage or form and 
habit. Preferably one should be a standard shade tree and the alternating 
species selected for some special quality, ornamental foliage or flowers. 

Several combinations are suggested below in which there is contrast in 
the color of the foliage of the two species and difference in their habit and 
size. 

COMBINATION OF AN OBNAMENTAL SPECIES WITH A 
STANDAED SHADE TBEE. 

Standard Shade Tree. Ornamental Tree, 

common name. botanical name. common name. botanical name. 

Southern maple. .Acer floridanum Crape myrtle. .. . Lagerstroemia 

inclica 

White linden Tilia heterophylla Locust Robinia 

pseudacacia 
Tilia argentea... . Tilia argentea Hardy catalpa. . .Catalpa speciosa 

Water oak Quercus nigra Paulonia Paulonia im- 

perialis 

Willow oak Quercus phellos Yellowwood Cladrastis lutea 

rMimosa tree Albizzia julib- 

J rissin 

[Mountain ash. . . .Pyrus americana 



Sycamore Platanus 



A small evergreen can be used as one of the species in place of the 
ornamental tree. This makes a combination desirable in those cities and 
towns which cater to winter tourists. Except the laurel oak and live oak 
there are no large evergreen or semi-evergreen street shade trees. There 
are, however, several smaller evergreen trees too diminutive to be ser- 
viceable alone during the summer season, but which could appropriately 
be used in connection with a larger deciduous tree. In spite of their 



OS SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

small size, the presence of these evergreens gives vivacity and color to 
what would otherwise be a gray-toned winter vista. 

COMBINATION OF A SMALL EVERGREEN SPECIES WITH A 
STANDARD SHADE TREE. 
Standard Shade Tree. Evergreen, 

common name. botanical name. common name. botanical name. 

Southern maple.. Acer floridanum Evergreen cherry 

or mockorange . Primus caro- 

linlana 

Cork elm Vlmus alata Evergreen mag- 
nolia Magnolia foetida 

Willow oak Quercus phellos 

European llolu n ' ' "'"" " 

silver linden. .Tilia argentea 



Trees which are eccentric either in form, as the weeping willow and 
weeping birch, or in color, as the purple beech, should not be extensively 
used for street planting. These trees have a place of their own, as on the 
lawn and park, but they are usually out of place on the streets of a town. 
Flowering species or those with bright colored autumnal foliage are not 
open to objection since their prevailing color is green and the season of 
their bright color is of short duration. Even rigid and formal shapes, 
which have ceased to be regarded as oddities on account of their common 
use, as the bolle and lombardy poplars, umbrella tree and bunge catalpa, 
should be used with discreet moderation. But even such extreme shapes 
can at times be employed to great advantage. The lombardy or bolle 
poplars, used before a long row of flat-roofed buildings, as a factory 
front, are in good taste (PL X). 

Lastly, it might be advisable for towns to select and use one standard 
shade tree, which can be secured cheaply and which experience has shown 
to be healthy and well adapted to the local conditions, to such an extent 
that it will be characteristic of the town and associated with it, as are the 
willow oaks of Charlotte, the elms of Winston, the laurel oaks of Wilming- 
torj and live oaks of Southport. It is not meant by this, however, that 
thej should be used exclusively, for a sufficient number of species should 
always be employed to give some variety io the planting. 

TEEE PLANTING ALONG POADS. 
Ii is not, advisable i<> plan! heavy foliaged trees near roads unless the 
road are either macadam or are sandy. In either of these cases the 






TREE PLANTING ALONG ROADS. 39 

trees are a considerable protection to the road, maintaining the moisture 
in them which hardens either sandy or crushed stone roads, both by shad- 
ing the roads from the sun and by preventing their drying by winds. 

Trees should be selected for roadside planting which will interefere in 
the least possible way with the cultivation or productiveness of adjoining 
fields, and also which will yield either some valuable wood, nut or fruit. 

For the middle and eastern parts of this State there is no tree superior 
to the pecan for such planting. Its root system is rather deep, which is an 
advantage in cultivating adjoining fields. When the pecan is grafted on 
hickory stock, as can be readily done, it should be on either the white 
hickory or the shagbark, since these species on account of their very 
deeply seated tap root and lateral roots, injure adjacent tillable land very 
slightly. The most important varieties of pecan are the Stuart, Bolton, 
Van Dewan, and Frocher. These varieties can only be propagated by 
grafting or by buying grafted stock which can be secured from reliable 
southern nurserymen. Seedling pecans are readily raised, but even when 
grown from the largest and finest nuts, will often yield only those of 
indifferent quality. Pecans for roadside planting should be spaced not 
less than 40 feet. 

For planting in the western portion of this State the native chestnut is 
unequalled. While its nut is smaller than the Japanese nut, it is far 
superior to it in flavor, and is the equal of the Italian or Spanish nut, 
which is somewhat larger than the nut of the native tree. Those who de- 
sire 1 can readily graft the Japanese stock on roots of the native species, 
and if it is desired to grow the Japanese nut, this would be advisable for 
roadside planting, since on its own roots the Japanese chestnut makes a 
much smaller tree than when grafted on our native species. On account of 
its size, however, health and the abundance of its nuts, the native species 
is to be recommended. It should be spaced 50 feet. 

There are three native hickories which would make desirable roadside 
trees. These are the shagbark, Carolina shagbark and the scaly bark or 
red heart. Not only is the quality of their nuts excellent, but their timber 
is of superior quality and they attain a large size. 

Cherry trees have been extensively planted on the streets of Jefferson, 
where they seem to have proved very satisfactory, and while such a fruit 
tree cannot well be recommended for towns, it would make a very desirable 
roadside tree in localities west of Greensboro, where the cherry thrives. 
Most of the standard cherry trees attain a large size and remain in 
healthy condition for a great many years. They should be spaced not less 
than 40 feet. 



40 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

Walnuts (Juglans). — In addition to the native black walnut, which 
is a very desirable roadside tree, there are several foreign walmits which 
yield nuts of a better quality. 

Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) can be planted along the roads in any 
portion of the State. It is advisable to plant the trees in the places where 
they are to remain, since it does not bear removing at all well on account 
of its deeply seated tap root. Very large and thin-shelled nuts should be 
selected, as the nut of the black walnut is capable of considerable im- 
provement. Walnut trees should be spaced 45 feet. 

English Walnut is not hardy further west than Salisbury. In the 
eastern part of this State, it makes a medium sized tree and should be very 
generally planted, even if only seedlings are raised. These latter are in- 
ferior in the quality of their nuts to grafted stock secured from nursery- 
men. 

Two hardy Japanese walnuts are being offered by southern nurserymen 
which are superior in the quality of their nuts to our native species, al- 
though much inferior to the English walnut. One of these is the Juglans 
cordiformis, whose nut bears much resemblance to the butternut. It is 
thin shelled and the kernel can be removed entire. It makes a large tree, 
forming a tap root and is hardy in the eastern two-thirds of this State. 
The other, Juglans sieboldia-na, which is a native of the mountains of 
Japan, and which will probably be hardy in the mountains of this State, 
is a smaller tree with a root system of many deep-seated roots and fibrous 
rootlets. The nuts, which are borne at an early age in large clusters, are 
of superior quality, about the size of those of the black walnut but with 
much thinner shells. The nuts of both species can be secured at reason- 
able prices. For trees suitable for very dry or wet places see p. 72. 

AEBOR DAY. 

It is not inappropriate to refer to the observance of Arbor Day by 
schools and its true field of usefulness in this State. 

While the same sentiment which is attached to the observance of Arbor 
Day in the scantily forested western states cannot be applied in a well 
wooded State like North Carolina, yet the observance here of such a day 
has its significance. Arbor Day in North Carolina could be set aside for 
the school children to learn of the great natural gift which we have in the 
forests, and the relation of the forest to the well-being and wealth of our 
people. 

The right way to plant a tree, I he treatment of the roots and crown, the 
manner of pressing the earth firmly about the roots, and how to prune the 



ARBOR DAY. 41 

branches will make good manual exercises for the school children, but it 
would also be well for everyone to be able to perform them. 

The life of the tree is closely associated with the smallest roots which 
absorb moisture and the need for preserving these when transplanting 
should be emphasized. The moisture the tree must have, its use of 
manure (leaf -mould and humus), how it grows and bears its fruit are 
elementary to the fundamental truths of the relation of the forest to the 
happiness and progress of our people. 

Next to the very soil itself, which in North Carolina was originally 
nearly all forest covered, the forest has been the chief source of livelihood 
for our people. If it at one time temporarily barred the progress of the 
farm, it yielded at the same time a revenue in furnishing both warmth 
and shelter. When the farming land became worn and thin or gullied, 
the thickets of pine again covered the soil, restoring its fertility and mak- 
ing it productive. The relation of the forest to the farm is paramount. It 
is so intimate as to be almost inseparable. On the farm the uses of wood 
are manifold, for fuel, fencing, building tools and barrels and crates for 
shipping. 

Within itself, moreover, the forest sustains a vast industry, employing 
more than 20,000 of our men in handling and sawing and reconverting 
its lumber and other products. 

But even this is not the limit of the direct usefulness of the forest. The 
value of the many rivers of North Carolina for manufacturing depends 
largely upon the uniformity of their flow, upon the absence of great floods, 
and the shortness of the period of low water, and upon how small a quan- 
tity of sand and earth is washed from the soil of our hills and mountains. 
Great unevenness in the flow of the streams makes it difficult to use the 
power. Large amounts of earth in the water fill up the ponds and reser- 
voirs and prevent the water being stored. The forest is very important in 
adding to the usefulness of the rivers. The more forest there is on the 
streams and the thicker the sponge of leaves and litter on the ground 
beneath the trees the more uniform is the stream flow and the freer the 
water from sand and earth. And this is true not only of the big rivers 
but the small streams as well. The bottoms along many of them, at one 
time cultivated in corn, are now covered with sand bars or have been 
washed into deep gullies by the floods as the influence of the forest has 
been lessened by burning and destroying its humus in addition to clearing 
the land. 

It is from these thoughts that the real lesson of Arbor Day can be 
drawn. The forest is one of our greatest and most valuable natural gifts 
and one which, when destroyed, lessens our prosperity, reduces our sources 



42 SHADE TEEES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

of wealth, and brings great damage to other industries. As such a re- 
source, it should be wisely used and in such a way that young trees may 
always come up in the forest land to take the place of those that are cut. 
It is important to the owner that every acre of his land should be pro- 
ducing something of value, and since in many parts of the State we cannot 
grow grass on land which has become washed or worn, or which is very 
steep, such land should be planted in trees that it may be growing some- 
thing of use and value, for idle lands like idle hands are a reproach to 
both owner and State. And since the forest is' one of the primary sources 
of wealth like our water-powers and our fisheries, the State should seek 
by wise laws to perpetuate them, and we should try to retain their owner- 
ship and use so far as possible among the people who live in the State, and 
have their homes here, in order that the wealth that the forests create as 
they rise in value, may remain at home. We should look forward with the 
hope that eventually the greater portion of our hardwoods will be manu- 
factured into finished products within the State, keeping skilled men busy, 
and building cities where only towns stand to-day ; and that the wood will 
not go out as mere rough lumber to supply the factories of other States. 

These are all profitable suggestions for Arbor Day, and will serve to 
show what the true significance of the day should be — the relation of our 
forests to our wealth and prosperity. 

DESCRIPTION OF TEEES SUITABLE FOE PLANTING. 

Hardy Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa), a native oi the Mississippi Valley, 
is now naturalized around most of the larger towns of this State. 

A small or middle-sized tree seldom attaining a greater height than 40 
feet, it makes rapid growth in youth, passing its prime before thirty years 
old. The short, stout trunk covered with scaly gray-brown bark, excurrent 
in young specimens, but deliquescent in old, divides into a few stout 
spreading branches which form in old trees a broadly oval, usually unsym- 
metrical crown. 

The catalpa has large, ovate-cordate leaves which cast a dense shade; 
they appear late in spring but are early deciduous. The large pale blue- 
purple flowers winch appear in early summer are very ornamental. The 
twigs are stout and slightly curved and the numerous, long slender pods 
are pendant from them during winter until the succeeding spring. 

The shallow root system develops rapidly and large specimens are easily 
transplanted. The crown, even in old trees, will endure vigorous pruning. 
The wood is rather brittle and easily broken by the wind and the crown is 
apt to become ragged in old age. Its rapid growth, ease of rooting, toler- 
ance of the knife and pleasing winter ,'ippearance commends it for road- 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING. 43 

side planting. The leaves are . frequently eaten by a caterpillar, which 
makes it objectionable for a street tree. It is exacting as to soil, requiring 
a good loam or clay. Keproduction is easily procured by seed and there 
are no difficulties in propagating nursery stock. Two-year-old seedlings 
should be cut back to the root to secure a straight unforked stem. In 
planting along highways, the trees should be spaced 20 feet. It can 
readily be distinguished from the common catalpa, which is more com- 
mon but is of far less value, by its shorter and more slender pods, seldom 
one-fourth inch thick. 

Umbrella Catalpa (Catalpa bungei, var. nana) is a smaller tree than 
the preceding but with similar foliage and twigs, but neither flowers nor 
fruits. It forms a broad umbrella-shaped crown. When planted in rows 
it should not be spaced more than 15 feet. Stock can be secured from 
nurserymen. It is propagated only by grafting. 

Paulonia (Paulonia imperialis) , a native of Japan, is now naturalized 
in many portions of the State. It is a middle-sized tree seldom attaining 
a greater height than 35 feet. Very rapid growth is made in youth, and 
since it is a short-lived tree, it reaches its best development before its 
twentieth year. The stout trunk covered with dark gray-brown, slightly 
rough bark divides at a low height into a few large spreading or almost 
horizontal branches, which form a broad flattened crown. 

The paulonia has very large, thick, orbicular-cordate leaves which form 
a dense foliage; they appear late in spring, many usually dropping during 
the summer, and are early deciduous. The very large clusters of pale 
purple flowers which appear before and with the leaves in mid- April are 
extremely fragrant. The twigs are stout, slightly up-curved at the tips 
and bear during the winter the large erect panicles of velvety brown 
flower buds as well as the clusters of fruit capsules (PI. VII, A). 

The root system is shallow and develops rapidly and easily in trans- 
planted trees, assuring the successful moving of even large specimens. 
The crown will endure vigorous pruning. The wood is extremely brittle 
and limbs are easily broken in storms. It decays rapidly, necessitating 
considerable care to maintain the crown and trunk in healthy condition 
during old age. It is not exacting as to soil and makes rapid and healthy 
growth under adverse conditions, if abundantly supplied with light. Ee- 
production is easily secured from seed as well as by root shoots, which are 
borne in abundance. Two-year old seedlings of nursery stock should be 
cut back to the ground to facilitate the formation of clear straight stems, 
which will be sufficiently tall and stout for transplanting by the third 
year. Trees should be spaced 25 feet. 



44 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

Ashes (Fraxinus) . — There are many species of this genus whicn are 
suitable for planting. Of the six native species, however, only four are 
to be particularly recommended: Green ash, deep swamp ash, white and 
Biltmore ashes. 

Green Ash {Fraxinus lanceolata) is found along streams throughout 
the State, except possibly in the high mountains. In cultivation it is a 
middle-sized tree, seldom more than 50 feet high, making rapid growth in 
youth, reaching its best development about its thirtieth year and remain- 
ing for many years in excellent condition. The slender trunk covered 
with regularly furrowed gray-brown bark divides into many spreading 
and ascending straight branches which form a globose crown. 

The green ash has opposite bright green compound leaves formed of 
numerous small leaflets which cast a rather light shade, often turning a 
dull brown in autumn. They appear late in spring and are rather early 
deciduous. The flowers are inconspicuous, but the drooping clusters of 
fruit add much life to the foliage during summer and autumn. The 
twigs are stout, straight and, like the branches, often forked. The root 
system consists of numerous rather deeply seated roots. The trees are 
easily transplanted. The crown will endure only moderate pruning and 
the leader in young trees should not be cut until the stem has made the 
desired height. The stem of the ash is prone to fork and this should be 
guarded against, for although the wood is elastic and not easily broken 
by storms, forking stems will frequently split. Wounds do not heal rap- 
idly and scars on old trees which show any heart wood must be kept well 
painted to prevent decay. With this exception, the trees are quite free 
from diseases and insects. For its best development, green ash requires 
a good soil not too hard and dry. Eeproduction is easily effected by seed 
which are borne in abundance. Trees should be spaced 30 feet. 

Swamp Ash (Fraxinus profunda) is found along the larger streams 
south of Morganton and east of Salisbury. It is a large tree making rapid 
growth in youtli and reaching its best development about its thirtieth 
year, and remaining for many years in good health. The rather stout 
trunk, which is covered with very deeply and regularly chiseled brown- 
gray bark, divides into rather few spreading and ascending straight, fre- 
quently forked branches, which form a large globose or spreading crown. 

The swamp ash has compound foliage much like that of the green ash 
IhiI larger, more leathery, drooping and decidedly whitened beneath. The 
flowers, fruit, twigs and root system are also quite similar to those of the 
green ash. Although a swamp tree, it makes rapid growth in cultivation 
as a shade tree on uplands and is the ash most frequently planted in the 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE EOR PLANTING. 45 

towns east of M organton, and south of Ealeigh it does much better than 
any other tree of this genus. Trees should be spaced 35 feet. 

White Ash and Biltmore Ash (Fraxinus americana and Fraxinus 
biltmoreana) . — These trees are much alike in their foliage and habit; 
both are found along streams throughout the western portion of the State, 
extending to considerable elevations on moist mountain slopes. They 
have habits and cultural characters similar to those of the green and the 
swamp ashes, but are better adapted for planting in the extreme western 
portion of the State than either of the latter species. The white ash does 
not make as vigorous and healthy growth east of the Blue Bidge as the 
green and swamp ashes and is not so suitable for planting there. They 
should be spaced 30 feet. 

Small-leaved or Cork Elm ( TJlmus alata) is found indigenous below 
an elevation of 2000 feet. A large tree attaining a height of 40 to 60 
feet, it makes on moist sandy soils rapid growth in youth, and on dryer 
and stiffer soils rather slow but well sustained growth for a great many 
years, reaching its prime after the fortieth year and attaining under good 
conditions an age of 100 years. The slender trunk, only slightly butt- 
ressed at base, and covered with very dark gray, often nearly black rough 
and slightly scaly bark, divides at a low height into numerous, graceful, 
ascending branches, which form an elongated, vase-shaped crown. The 
small dark-green leaves are distichously arranged along the delicate pen- 
dulous twigs. They appear late in spring and after turning a dull yellow 
in early autumn, drop gradually until frost. The minute brownish-purple 
flowers appear in February in small numerous clusters along the twigs, 
and are succeeded by an abundance of silvery-brown, scale-like fruit which 
matures and falls the middle of April just before or as the leaves' appear. 
The twigs are slender, dark-brown and often wing-margined on young 
trees and form graceful, flattened, pendulous sprays. The root system is 
shallow, only a moderate tap root being developed ; while the lateral roots 
lie near or on the surface and extend great distances from the tree. The 
crown of young trees will endure vigorous pruning; old trees, however, 
recover slowly. While the wood is extremely tough, the forked branches 
which are numerous are easily split either in wind storms or beneath the 
weight of sleet (PI. III). For this reason the tree requires careful train- 
ing in youth to secure a crown free from large forks and formed of nu- 
merous well^spaced and equal-sized branches (Pis. I and VI). The heart- 
wood, unless carefully painted after pruning, decays rapidly, but with 
care trees can be maintained in excellent condition until very old. It is 
not exacting as to soil and while the growth under unfavorable conditions 
is slow, the general health remains good. Reproduction is easily secured 



46 SHADE TREES POK NORTH CAROLINA. 

from the seed which are borne in abundance. Trees should be spaced 40 
feet. On account of its late leafing, its broom-shaped crown and its adapt- 
ability to inferior soils, this elm is especially suitable for planting un- 
paved streets and roads; and on account of its high arched crown, it 
interferes in town less with illumination than any other large tree. Its 
superficial roots, however, make it less desirable on paved streets, espe- 
cially beneath granolithic pavements, which it at times upheaves. Beau- 
tiful in summer when its waving fronds are stirred by a breeze, it is 
equally so when the delicate tracery of its numerous curved branches and 
sweeping hanging twigs are etched against a winter sky. 

White Elm (Ulmus americana) is quite similar to the cork elm in 
both growth and habit. It makes, however, a small tree on upland soils, 
is not so long-lived, is less healthy and is more subject to internal decay. 
The stem is more tapering and prominently buttressed at the fluted base. 
The crown is broader, more spreading, and the twigs while reflexed do not 
form the graceful, drooping sprays which characterize the preceding spe- 
cies. The leaves, appearing two weeks earlier than those of the cork elm, 
are larger, of a brighter green, and the fruit, appearing in March and 
maturing before the leaves are full grown, is green instead of brown. 
Except the scant verdure of its early fruit, which is the first welcome 
green of the trees, the white elm, in this State, does not make as acceptable 
a shade tree as the other native elms. Nevertheless, it is extensively 
planted in many of the towns east of the Blue Ridge, and is not in fact 
usually separated from the cork elm. The white elm has been attacked 
at Winston (where it has been extensively planted) and at other points 
north and west of Greensboro, by the imported elm leaf beetle, an insect 
which, when locally well established, largely destroys the foliage of the 
elms. It is hoped that climatic conditions will prevent its spread south 
and east of Greensboro. 

Slippery Elm (Ulmus pubescens) has a more spreading fan-shaped 
crown than the small-leaved elm and larger twigs and foliage. It is less 
common than the small-leaved and is in no respect superior to it as a 
shade tree. It grows, however, throughout the high mountain counties 
and is available for planting in that section, as well as in other portions of 
the State. 

Hackberry (Celtis Mississippiensis) , a native tree, is found along the 
larger water courses. In the coastal plain it acquires large proportions, 
lull, westward is smaller. Its growth is rapid in old age as well as in 
youth, reaching maturity as a shade tree by its twenty-fifth year. The 
short stout trunk is covered with smooth, light-gray bark, and often 
roughened with large, cork-like excrescences. The fluted base is enlarged 






N. C. GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN NO. ID. PLATE VI 




TYPICAL ELM, VASE-SHAPED CROWN, FORMED OF MANY ASCENDING STEMS. 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE EOR PLANTING. -±7 

and the trunk divides at a low height into many wide-spreading, angular 
branches and slender, intricate branchlets, which form a large globose or 
flattened crown. The foliage is small and elm-like and appears delicate 
green in early spring, maturing by mid- April before that of other species 
have scarce burst their buds. The root system is like that of the elms, 
superficial and spreading. Few trees, however, replace roots more rap- 
idly, which enables large specimens to be planted with perfect success. 
The crowns, even of old trees, endure the most vigorous pruning, but the 
wood decays with such rapidity that every precaution is necessary to pre- 
vent hollows and defective trunks. The wood is brittle and easily broken 
by sleet and wind storms. Not exacting as to soil, the hackberry makes 
satisfactory growth, except on dry, heavy clays. Young plants are easily 
secured from seed which are borne solitary in a small cherry-like berry 
that matures in the late fall and remains on the tree throughout the 
winter. It should be spaced 40 feet. Except in its very early leafing and 
smooth white bark, the hackberry possesses no characters which give it 
preference above the small-leaved elm. It is planted almost to the exclu- 
sion of other species on the streets of Columbia, S. C. 

Hickories (Hicoria).- — Of the many species of the genus which are 
native to the State, only three deserve consideration for general shade 
planting in parks or on roadsides. These are the shagbark, the Carolina 
shagbark and the red heart or scaly bark. 

Shagbark (Hicoria ovaia) is one of the most widely distributed trees 
of the State, occurring along streams and on moist slopes from the coast 
to an elevation of 3000 feet. As a shade tree, it attains a height of from 
60 to 70 feet, making rapid growth in youth and maintaining a healthy 
condition to an advanced age. The straight cylindrous trunk, covered 
with long narrow strips of loose gray bark, is excurrent until the tree is 
well past its youth. The crown of the young tree is pyramidal but be- 
comes broader and more oval as the trunk branches with age. The com- 
pound leaves are formed of large drooping leaflets. They are bright 
green and fragrant when they appear in early spring; afford a dense 
shade during the summer and turn various tones of yellow and brown in 
late autumn before falling. While the flowers are not conspicuous, the 
scales of the winter buds greatly enlarge in unfolding in the spring and 
assume many delicate shades of red and yellow. The twigs are stout, 
usually slightly curved and tipped with large acute buds which are con- 
spicuous during the winter. The fruit from which the thick husk freely 
splits is white, thin-shelled and the most delicately flavored of any native 
nut. Nuts are usually borne in abundance in this as well as in the other 
species. 



48 SHADE TREES POR NORTH CAROLINA. 

A very large tap-root is rapidly developed in youth which greatly inter- 
feres with transplanting even small specimens. Hickories admit of mod- 
erately severe priming, especially in youth. The wood is tough and is not 
liable to injury by wind storms, but top branches are occasionally badly 
broken by sleet. A twig girdler does much damage by pruning small 
branchlets and in many localities a timber beetle is very destructive to 
middle-aged and old trees by girdling them beneath the bark. The foliage 
is remarkably free from fungus diseases; the wood, however, rapidly de- 
cay's if wounds are left unprotected. It is not over exacting as to soil 
and will produce a nice, shapely tree on soils of moderate fertility, if once 
successfully started. Nuts, which are easily procured, sprout readily ; but 
it is better to plant them in the place where the tree is to grow either in ■ 
parks, private grounds, or along roadsides, than to transplant young trees. 
Trees should be spaced 40 feet. 

Carolina Shagbark (Hicoria Carolina septentrionalis) is a native 
tree growing on uplands, usually on sandy soils from Wake to Guilford 
counties across the State from Virginia to South Carolina. It is similar 
to the shagbark but a smaller tree with a slightly smaller nut and smaller 
twig and foliage. On thin dry soils it makes more satisfactory growth 
than the common shagbark. Nuts are usually borne in abundance and 
can be secured for planting from nearly any county between Person and 
Anson. 

Scaly Bark or Red Heart Hickory (Hicoria odorata) is found 
throughout the State, preferring fertile upland soils. It is a large tree 
attaining in cultivation a height of from 50 to 70 feet, making moderate 
growth until an old tree and reaching an age of more than 100 years. 
The straight, cylindrical trunk is covered with dark gray scaly-brown 
bark or occasionally merely deeply and irregularly furrowed. In young 
trees the trunk is excurrent and the crown conical or ovoid, but in old 
trees it is much divided near the top and the crown assumes a broader and 
rounder shape. The red heart hickory has dark green compound leaves 
formed of large drooping leaflets, the petioles often tinged with red or 
purple. They are fragrant in spring when they appear and turn lemon 
yellow before falling in autumn. The lustrous purple-brown twigs are 
slightly curved and spreading. 

A deep tap-root is developed interfering with successful transplanting. 
In its ability to endure pruning and its behavior in wind and sleet storms, 
it is quite similar to the shagbark. Not so exacting as to soil, it makes 
more satisfactory growth on close upland soils than the preceding species. 
II. i- propagated in the same way. Trees should be spaced 40 feet. 



DESCRIPTION OP TREES SUITABLE POR PLANTING. 49 

Pecan, a native of the lower Mississippi valley and Gulf States, has 
been extensively planted throughout eastern and middle Carolina. A 
large tree, attaining a height of from 50 to 70 feet, it makes rapid growth 
in youth and possesses a prolonged and healthy old age. The long, slen- 
der trunk, covered with more or less scaly dark gray bark, divides when 
middle-aged into many spreading and ascending branches forming a 
broadly oval crown. 

The pecan has large dark green, compound leaves formed of numerous 
small leaflets, which appear late in spring and fall late in autumn, acquir- 
ing tones of yellow and brown. The greenish-yellow flowers which appear 
considerably before the leaves in slender catkins are not very conspicuous. 
The slender, slightly curved gray-brown twigs are flexuous and bear long 
but inconspicuous gray buds, and often during winter the empty husk 
which contained the nut. 

A tap-root and numerous long surface roots are developed. In subjects 
raised in the nursery the tap-root must either be turned by placing a hard 
substance beneath the nuts, or cut several times in re-transplanting. The 
leader should not be cut back further than the twig of the year if young 
trees are expected to form a shapely crown. The crown of young trees is 
oval, becoming broader with age. The wood is not quite so tough as that 
of the shagbark, but it withstands both sleet and wind storms very well. 
For its best development, it is exacting as to soil, requiring a fertile, moist 
situation ; but does moderately well on uplands of good quality. Nuts are 
borne in abundance on seedlings after the fifteenth year, but several years 
earlier on grafted stock. Young trees are easily raised from seed which 
require the same care and are subject to the same diseases as the other 
hickories. Trees grown from seed cannot be expected to always produce 
nuts equal to those that were planted, since most of the commercial nuts 
are from grafted stock. Grafted trees can be secured from commercial 
nurserymen. There is no nut tree more suitable for extensive planting 
in the middle and eastern part of Carolina than the pecan. It will do 
well in nearly all portions of the State except the mountains, for either 
roadside planting, large parks or private grounds. For planting above an 
elevation of 1200 feet, both seed and grafted stock should be secured 
only from Mississippi Eiver points north of St. Louis, to insure hardiness. 

Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) is found growing throughout the 
State. A large tree attaining as a shade tree a height of 50 to 70 feet, it 
makes rapid growth for several decades, maintaining a long and healthy 
old age. The straight cylindrical trunk, covered with nearly black, deeply 
furrowed bark, is excurrent in young trees which have a conical crown but 
at middle age divides and the crown becomes broadly oval. 



50 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

The large bright green compound leaves are formed of numerous leaf- 
lets. The} r appear late in spring, form a dense shade during summer and 
turn dull brown before falling late in autumn. The flowers are not con- 
spicuous. Twigs are stout and spreading. The root system has a deep 
tap-root which hinders the transplanting of any but the smallest speci- 
mens. Young trees can be moderately pruned but old trees not so severely. 
The wood is elastic and well withstands storms. The walnut does very 
well on upland soils if not too dry and sandy, although it naturally grows 
only in moist fertile situations. A high percentage of the nuts germinate 
and young trees are easily raised, but since transplanting is rendered 
difficult on account of the tap-root, they are best planted in the place they 
are to grow. Trees should be spaced 40 to 50 feet. 

Tulip or Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) is a native tree 
found in moist, cool situations throughout the State, most abundant in 
the western portion of the State and least so in the coastal plain region. 

In cultivation it becomes a large-sized tree attaining a height of 70 to 
SO feet and an age of more than 100 years. The excurrent trunk, covered 
with light gray regularly furrowed bark is straight and cylindrical, only 
slightly tapering. The crown, conical when young and oval when mature, 
is formed of many short slightly ascending, gracefully arched branches. 
The bright green lustrous foliage appears very early in spring, forms a 
moderately dense canopy and turns a bright yellow in early autumn before 
falling. The ornamental yellow and orange flowers appear in April and 
May when the foliage is nearly grown. The twigs are long, curved and 
tipped with large conspicuously flattened buds (PL II, A). 

On account of its excurrent stem the tulip poplar will not endure top 
pruning and must be given abundant room for the perfect development of 
its splendid crown. The leader should not be cut back beyond the wood 
of the season. Severe pruning in any portion of the tree tends to produce 
short branches or false leaders, which greatly mar the beauty and sym- 
metry of the crown. Care must be taken to remove any false leader, 
which naturally develops, as early as possible. The tree is remarkably 
free from the attacks of both fungus and insect diseases, but suffers from 
sun scald when young. 

The root system is rather deeply seated and formed of large, fleshy 
roots, and transplanting should take place late in spring just before the 
foliage begins to develop. While seed are borne in abundance only a few 
are fertile, hut young plants are easily raised if lightly shaded until two 
years old. Trees should be spaced 40 feet. While not suited for general 
streel plan ling, there is no liner irec for avenues in places west of 
Statesville. 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING. 51 

Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acuminata) is indigenous to the mountains 
of this State, but grows well in cultivation from Ealeigh westward. It 
forms a slender tree of moderate size, becoming upward of 60 feet in 
height. The excurrent trunk is covered with light-gray, slightly scaly 
bark ; and the long symmetrical crown, conical when young, and oval when 
past middle age, is formed of numerous short nearly horizontal or slightly 
ascending angled branches, with ascending tips set with short, stout, spur- 
like, erect twigs. The bright green lustrous foliage appears early in 
spring and forms a dense shade. The greenish white fragrant flowers 
open in May soon after the leaves and are succeeded by the conspicuous 
green or reddish fruit. The large, silvery-gray velvety buds are prominent 
in winter. Like the tulip poplar, the cucumber tree cannot be severely 
pruned. It also requires the same care in transplanting. It is not known 
to be subject to any diseases. 

The fleshy seed should be collected from the cones in September and 
kept like those of the other magnolias during winter. The seedlings re- 
quire a slight shade during the first two years. While scarcely adapted 
for ordinary street planting, the cucumber tree lends itself admirably on 
account of its dignity, straight trunk, symmetrical crown, lustrous foliage, 
and pleasing winter appearance to planting avenues and parks. A hand- 
some specimen, more than 75 feet in height, ornaments the State House 
grounds at Ealeigh. 

Mountain Magnolia (Magnolia fraseri) is a native of the higher 
mountains of this State and so far as is known, has not been cultivated 
below them. There is little reason, however, why it should not do as well 
as the cucumber tree where that will thrive. 

It is a middle-sized tree attaining a height of from 4-0 to 50 feet, reach- 
ing its maturity before its fiftieth year and rapidly passing into senile 
decrepitude. The excurrent trunk is straight and cylindrical, covered 
with smooth light-gray beech-like bark. The crown, formed of few 
spreading branches, is oval when young and broadly oval at maturity. 
The ample bright green, lustrous leaves are borne in spreading whorls at 
the tips of the twigs. The very large, creamy-white flowers, 8 inches or 
more in diameter, appear before the leaves at the tips of the twigs in early 
May and are followed in mid-summer by the beautiful scarlet fruit, 4 
inches or more in length on declined or even pendant pedicles. The few 
very large red-brown lustrous twigs are upcurved at their tips and capped 
by prominent, elongated buds. 

As in the case of the other magnolias, it should be pruned only in ex- 
treme moderation. It requires the same care in transplanting and is 
propagated in the same manner as the cucumber tree. The foliage is free 



•■ 



52 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

from insects and fungus diseases. The wood, however, is brittle and fre- 
quently broken in wind and sleet storms. It decays rapidly on exposure 
and when pruned must be carefully protected. It has a tendency to 
sucker around the base of the stem and such sprouts should be promptly 
removed. They can often be used for propagation. 

While a smaller tree than the cucumber tree and lacking its symmetry 
and dignity, the mountain magnolia is well suited for planting avenues 
and for use in parks, in the western portion of the State. 

Evergreen Magnolia (Magnolia fcetida) is a native of the southern 
United States and varieties of it can be cultivated in this State, in shel- 
tered positions, as far west as the foot of the Blue Ridge, though much of 
the foliage will often winter-kill west of Raleigh and Charlotte. 

In cultivation it makes a middle-sized tree attaining a height of 40 feet 
and reaching, except in favored localities, old age by its sixtieth year. 
The trunk is excurrent and the smooth bark dark olivacious gray. The 
crown, formed of numerous horizontal branches, is conical when young 
and oval at maturity. While there are several horticultural varieties dif- 
fering slightly in size, shape and shade of the leaves, they are in all forms 
large, thick, leathery and evergreen. The flowers, deeply cup-shaped, 
from 8 to 10 inches wide, appear in different varieties from May to July, 
and are followed by the oval red-berried fruit. 

The magnolia can be pruned only in moderation. Care should be taken 
in developing young subjects to prevent the formation of forked stems. 
Only one leader should ever be allowed to remain, and false leaders, which 
occasionally occur on branches, should be promptly removed. A magnolia 
should always assume the shape of a pyramid, the foliage mass rising un- 
broken from the ground, and for this reason the lower branches should 
not be removed, but should be trained horizontally, and allowed to grow 
to their full limit and thicken as much as possible in order to fully conceal 
the base of the stem. The young subjects should be trained to develop 
numerous low branches with this object in view. The roots are few, large 
and fleshy, and penetrate the ground to a considerable depth, requiring for 
best development a light moist fertile soil. As is the case with the other 
species of this genus, the magnolia is not easily transplanted. The best 
season is late spring and then the leaves should be pulled or clipped and 
only small specimens used. Magnolias can be used to best advantage for 
street planting only in alternation with other species, and are not adapted 
for genera] si reet planting, but permit of occasional use on parking strips, 
etc. In planting along avenues and drive-ways, specimens should never 
be placed within 15 Peel of them to allow for the future spread of the 
lower branches. 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING. 53 

American Linden and White Linden (Tilia americana and Tilia 
heterophylla) . — There are several species of linden which are adapted for 
street planting. All have nearly similar foliage, the same general charac- 
ter of branching and forming the crown and attain in cultivation about 
the same proportions. The two native species which are available are the 
American and White lindens, both natives of this State and both easily 
secured from nurserymen. They are quite similar except in the color and 
size of their foliage, which in the American linden is smaller and bright- 
green beneath; while that of the White linden is more ample, thicker and 
of a silvery whiteness below. 

In cultivation the native lindens attain a height of 30 to -15 feet, mak- 
ing rapid growth, especially in youth, which is well maintained to a con- 
siderable age. They are rather exacting as to soil and do best on loose 
moist loams abundantly supplied with organic matter and furnishing 
copious root space. The trunk, covered with thin, light gray, slightly fur- 
rowed bark, divides at a. low height into many erect and ascending 
branches, forming an oval or in old age a broadly oval crown. The leaves, 
differing slightly in the two species, appear late in spring, form a dense 
canopy, and turning dull yellow or brown, fall early in autumn. The 
large, pendulous clusters of fragrant flowers, appear late in May or early 
June and are succeeded by the dry berry-like fruit appended to narrow 
leaf -like bracts which often remain on the twigs until late in winter. The 
branchlets divide into many stout, gracefully curved twigs. 

The lindens endure pruning extremely well and over large crowns can 
be heavily topped. While the wood is soft, it is elastic and not badly 
broken by storms. It decays easily and wounds must be promptly pro- 
tected. Forest pulled specimens sun scald. 

The root system is shallow but finely divided. Broken roots are freely 
replaced and transplanting of even large trees is successfully accom- 
plished. Young plants can be abundantly secured from seed but must be 
protected by lattice-shade until two years old. On account of the rapidity 
of their growth, the ease with which they recuperate from heavy pruning 
and with which they can be transplanted, their freedom from disease, 
dense foliage and symmetrical crown, the lindens are among the most de- 
sirable shade trees. Trees should be spaced 40 feet. 

The European Silver Linden (Tilia argentea), a tree of the old 
world carried in stock by most nurserymen, has the same general charac- 
ters as the native species, but is more desirable in several particulars. 
The ramification of the twigs is more numerous and the twigs themselves 
are more slender, flexuous and delicate. The crown is more compact and 
the twigs spread horizontally from the ascending branches which gives a 



'■'- 



54 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

charming winter effect. The leaves, small and silvery-white beneath, 
form a dense canop3\ In this State it apparently is better adapted to 
both poor and heavy soils than the native species. Its tendency however 
is to form a short trunk and this must be rectified by judicious trimming. 
(Tilia europea, T. parvifolia, etc., should not be planted.) Trees should 
be spaced 30 feet. 

Horse Chestnut (Aesculus octandra), a native of Asia Minor, is now 
extensively naturalized in this State. It is a middle-sized tree making 
rapid growth until well advanced in age. The stout trunk covered with 
gray-brown scaly bark is naturally excurrent in the juvenile period, but 
divides into many branches in middle age. The crown, oval in youth, 
becomes very broadly oval in old age, or when the tree is heavily topped. 
The dense foliage is compound and droops from the tips of the common 
leaf stalk. The large panicles of highly ornamental white, pink-tipped 
flowers are succeeded by the fruit burrs. The straight stout chestnut- 
brown twigs bear during the winter large oval buds. While a deep tap- 
root is naturally developed, the trees are easily transplanted and root 
readily. Few trees are more tolerant of the knife and the crowns recover 
vigorously after heavy pollarding. Young trees are easily raised from seed 
which are borne in abundance. Trees should be spaced 35 feet. 

Buckeye (Aesculus) , a native, middle-sized tree, is suitable for plant- 
ing on fertile soil west of the Blue Ridge. It preserves the same general 
character as the horse chestnut, but is more exacting as to soil and the 
flowers are not so showy. Forms occur with pink and red as well as yel- 
low flowers. The flowering period, which is early in May, lasts only a few 
days. Trees should be spaced 30 feet. 

Maples (Acer). — The maples constitute the most widely planted 
group of shade trees in the United States, and are probably better adapted 
to street conditions than any other trees. There are four native species 
which are suitable for planting in this State. 

Norway Maple (Acer platarwides) .- — Besides the native species, de- 
scribed below, this European tree has been planted at considerable expense 
around many towns. It has fastigiate branches and forms a narrow crown. 
Its foliage is not so dense as that of the native species, but closely resem- 
bles that of the sugar maple, from which, localky, it is not separated. It 
lacks the autumnal brilliancy of the native trees and is not superior to 
well-growri stock of the native hard maples. 

Southern Maple or Southern Sugar Maple, grows in this State 
along streams east of Salisbury. It is a middle-sized tree, seldom attain- 
ing a height of more I ban 10 feel, making rapid growth in youth which 
is fairly well maintained until past middle age, but the growth in old age 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN NO. l6. PLATE VII 




w ^ 



w w 

"< p. 

< ft 

IS C 




> 




v. *l 




1 






i 




Si 





DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING. 55 

is slow. Trees fifteen years old are already of good size. The rather stout 
trunks divide at a low height into many slender, ascending flexuous 
branches which form an oval or broadly oval crown. The twigging is 
abundant, fine and graceful. The drooping foliage, dark green above and 
white beneath, appears early in April after the delicate pendulous green- 
ish-yellow flowers and forms a dense shade. In autumn it is conspicuous 
with shades of red and yellow. (See PI. VIII.) 

The fibrous, rather compact root system enables it to be easily trans- 
planted and its adaptability to all classes of soils makes it one of the 
most suitable trees for general planting east of Charlotte and Winston. 
It stands pruning well, even in old age, but very large branches must not 
be cut back without leaving sap lifters; otherwise their stumps will die. 
While the crown is usually symmetrical, it is not so much so as that of 
the northern sugar maple, and single branches often make rapid and irreg- 
ular growth, requiring some care and pruning to maintain in form. 

It is extremely free from insects and diseases, except the susceptibility 
to sun-scald, necessitating the protection of the stems of young specimens, 
at least of forest-pulled stock. There is no more desirable tree for the 
planting of streets of towns and cities or of roads where quick growth, 
dense shade and a not over large size tree is desired than the southern 
maple. It is easily propagated from seed which mature in October. 
Trees should be spaced 40 feet. 

Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) is a native of the mountains of this 
State. It is a middle-sized tree, becoming in cultivation somewhat larger 
than the southern maple but with about the same rate of growth ; rapid in 
youth and gradually declining with old age. Both this and the southern 
maple maintain soundness and dense symmetrical crowns until three- 
quarters of a century old. The crown is somewhat narrower and habit of 
growth more fastigiate in this than in the preceding species. The bark on 
the limbs and branchlets is ashy gray and lacks the pinkish tinge which 
is typical of the southern maple. The dense foliage is dark green on both 
sides and, as with the other species, acquires in autumn many brilliant 
shades of red and yellow. (PI. VII, B) 

It has the same root system and stands pruning equally as well as the 
preceding but naturally forms a more symmetrical crown. It is the most 
desirable tree for. general planting in this State west of Salisbury and is 
easily raised from seed which ripen in autumn. Trees should be spaced 
40 feet. 

Eed Maple (Acer rubrum) is found throughout the State either in its 
typical form with five-lobed, bright green leaves, or in the trident form 
which has smaller leaves, extremely dark green above and whitened be- 



56 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

neath. It is a middle-sized tree seldom attaining in cultivation a greater 
height than 35 feet. The growth in youth is rapid but it falls off con- 
siderably when past middle age. As a shade tree it is not very long-lived 
and specimens 40 years old are usually past their prime. The rather 
slender trunk covered with light gray scaly bark divides into a few spread- 
ing branches which form an oval, usually unsymmetrical crown. The 
bright red spreading twigs are stouter, shorter and stiffer than in the hard 
maples and are knotted during the deciduous season by the large, globose 
flower buds, from which in February and March appear the small clusters 
of bright red or yellow flowers, followed by dense masses of fruit, at first 
green, and at length just as the leaves are appearing, bright scarlet. 

It is one of the trees most easily transplanted, but only makes satis- 
factory growth on soils of good quality and should not be planted on 
stiff, dry, or on very light, poor soils. It stands trimming well, espe- 
cially when young. 

The leaves are netted by leaf miners and spotted by a species of para- 
sitic fungus. Young stems are subject to sun-scald if unprotected, and 
freshly exposed wood is liable to rapid decay. Seeds mature in May and 
should be at once planted. Trees should be spaced 30 feet. 

Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) is a native of river swamps in the 
eastern portion of the State, but is extensively planted in all of the larger 
towns. It is a small or middle-sized tree, seldom more than 30 feet in 
height; short-lived, attaining its prime in 20 or 25 years, and making very 
rapid growth especially in youth. The slender trunk, covered with dark 
gray, scaly bark, divides at a low height into a few slender, ascending 
branches which form an irregular broadly oval or flat-topped crown. The 
long, rather stout and bright colored twigs are pendulous as are the 
branchlets. The beautiful, deeply-lobed, bright green foliage appears 
very early in spring, forms rather a light shade during summer, turns 
very brilliant in autumn and falls early. 

It roots extremely easy and is one of the most readily transplanted 
trees. Even large specimens stand heavy pruning. The leaves are sub- 
ject to few diseases, but the soft brittle wood is easily broken by sleet and 
wind storms and decays rapidly on exposed surfaces. It is easily propa- 
gated from seed which mature in May. Trees should be spaced 35 feet. 

Box Elder or Ash-leaved Maple (Acer negundo) is a native tree 
which is much advertised by nurserymen. It is related in its twigging 
and general characters to the maples, but is much smaller than any which 
have been mentioned. It is too small in fact to make a desirable shade 
tree and its habit of low branching and forming short stems, which is not 
easily rectified, makes it generally undesirable. 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN NO. l6. PLATE VIII 




SOUTHERN MAPLES. ASCENDING HABIT OF TREES PLANTED CLOSE TOGETHER. IN A 
FEW YEARS EVERY OTHER TREE SHOULD BE REMOVED TO GIVE NECESSARY GROWING 
SPACE AND PREVENT DEFORMITIES. 



.-- 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING. 57 

There are several species of extensively advertised foreign maples, but 
none have any characters which would give them preference for this State 
over the native species for cleanliness, health, rapidity of growth, sym- 
metry or beauty of autumnal foliage. 

Dogwood (Cornus florida), a common native tree fully as beautiful in 
autumn with its crimson foliage and in winter with its small clusters of 
scarlet fruit as in spring when covered with a profusion of large white 
flowers. It is too small, however, to be used as a shade tree under any 
circumstances, 10 to 15 feet being the usual height; but it might occa- 
sionally be alternated on broad planting strips with standard shade trees. 
It is not difficult to transplant but is of slow growth and the stems should 
be well trimmed up before it is permitted to form a crown. 

Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) is one of our most striking native trees, 
with slender horizontal branches, short, spur-like twigs, and dark green 
clean glossy foliage which becomes crimson in early autumn. It makes a 
very handsome shade tree for parks or private grounds and might be 
occasionally tried for street planting. It is difficult to transplant, 
however. 

Sweet Gum (Liquidambar), a common tree in this State east of 
Statesville, reaches a large size, making rapid growth, especially in youth. 
The stout trunk is excurrent. The crown, formed of numerous branches, 
is conical in young specimens and ovoid in old. The twigs are large, 
rather abundant and are frequently cork-winged. The foliage is dense, 
very deeply lobed, of a bright pleasing green color and becomes scarlet in 
autumn. 

Some little difficulty is experienced in transplanting sweet gum on ac- 
count of its deeply seated tap-root, requiring it to be moved when young 
and very small. If carefully moved it readily takes root and makes satis- 
factory growth on moist, loose soils. The leader should not be cut back 
beyond the wood of the season, since false leaders are readily produced 
in the branches, which cause misshapen crowns. Even old trees, however, 
stand vigorous lateral pruning. The sweet gum is free from insects and 
diseases but freshly exposed wood surfaces decay rapidly. On account 
of its narrow conical crown, handsome foliage and nice appearance in the 
winter, the regular ascending branches and shining twigs, often having 
the globose fruit cones pendant from them until the following spring, it 
is suitable for planting avenues or for other formal lines. It should be 
spaced 40 feet. 

Locust or Yellow Locust (Robinia pseudacacia) . — This tree is found 
throughout the middle and western portions of the State. It is a slender 
tree of medium growth, attaining in favored localities a height of 50 feet 



58 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

and an age of 50 or 60 years. The trunk, which is inclined to be 
crooked, usually passes well up in the crown before dividing. The crown 
is narrowly oval, becoming broader in old trees and the compound foliage 
is light, airy and graceful. The locust bears large drooping clusters of 
white fragrant flowers in early spring. It stands pruning extremely well. 
The root system is shallow and the tree is therefore very easily trans- 
planted. The foliage is attacked by several insects, though rarely badly 
damaged ; and the trunks of trees are subject to the attack of a species of 
polyporus which destroys the heartwood and weakens the stem. For this 
reason exposed wood, although the surface is very small, should be care- 
fully painted, for since the sapwood is only a few rings thick, the heart- 
wood will usually be exposed even when small limbs are removed. The 
roots are apt to produce suckers which should be promptly removed. It 
can be propagated either by seed or from suckers. 

The locust makes a desirable tree for planting in many places in the 
middle and western portions of the State and, while not well adapted to 
prolonged lines, on account of the attention it requires, its beautiful 
foliage and fragrant white flowers make it occasionally desirable. There 
are many handsome trees in Salisbury where it was formerly more exten- 
sively used than at present. Trees should be spaced 35 feet. 

Red-bud (Cercis canadensis) , a common native tree of small size, which 
has an abundance of small dark rose flowers along its thin, sinuous 
branches in March before the leaves appear. It is easily transplanted and 
stands trimming very well, which is seldom necessary, as its small, broad, 
flattened crown is usually well shaped and requires little attention. It is 
too small to be used alone as a shade tree but could serviceably be used 
in alternation with standard trees in parking strips. 

Honet Locust (Gleditschia triacanthos) , a well known extensively 
naturalized tree, which forms a stout trunk and a large spreading crown 
of numerous tortuous branches and twigs. The thin, light green, finely 
divided foliage is extremely attractive. For street trees the thorny stems 
and large pods render it objectionable, but it is well suited for roads and 
parks. It is easily transplanted, having a shallow, fibrous root system, 
stands pruning well and is readily propagated from seed. 

Mimosa Tree (Albizzia or Acacia), a native of southern Asia, has been 
extensively naturalized in middle and eastern Carolina. It is of small 
:-i/<\ seldom more than 25 feet in height, nor does it make an old tree. 
Specimens 30 years old are usually well passed their prime. The trunk 
is short, unless carefully lengthened and the broad flattened crown is 
much lil:>' that of the umbrella tree, although the branches are loss nu- 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING. 59 

merous. The foliage which appears very late in spring is finely divided 
and of a pleasing green color. It is sensitive, slowly folding after irrita- 
tion and at night. It is covered in June and Jnly with a profusion of 
very fragrant rose-colored flowers, which render it one of our most desira- 
ble ornamental trees. It stands pruning well but the wood decays rapidly 
on exposure. It is free from insects. • . 

It is one of the most desirable ornamental trees which we have for 
parking, narrow streets, or for alternating with standard shade trees. For 
lawns or for -small avenues it is also desirable. Its only disadvantages are 
the tendencies to form a low trunk and its short life, which are more than 
offset by its beauty. It is easily propagated from seed and is perfectly 
hardy as far west as Statesville. Trees should be spaced 30 feet. 

Kentucky Coffee Tree (Gymnocladus dioica) is an introduced tree 
occasionally planted in this State. While very striking on account of its 
flowers, large compound foliage, nearly ascending branches and stout 
twigs, its wood is brittle and easily broken by storms and its extensive 
planting is not recommended. 

Crape Myrtle (Lagerstrcemia indica), a native of India, frequently 
planted throughout the coastal region of the Southern States, is a slender 
tree with several stems from the same root, and short, fastigiate branches, 
forming an oblong crown. It reaches a height of 35 to 45 feet and the 
cluster of stems attain a diameter of 12 to 24 inches, each stem being from 
6 to 8 inches through. The smooth bark is russet or occasionally olive 
brown and the stems are more or less fluted. The small, thin, dark green 
foliage appears late in spring and turns crimson in early autumn. The 
flowers, of a deep rich crimson, pink or pure white, according to the horti- 
cultural variety, are borne in abundance during the summer months, the 
flowering period being quite extended. 

The root system, while rather deeply seated, is compact and young 
plants can be easily transplanted. When trees become too tall or spread- 
ing, they can be either topped or trimmed. The crape myrtle is free from 
insects and diseases. It is easily propagated either from the seed or by 
shoots which appear around the base of the stem. 

One of our most gorgeous trees, it is scarcely adapted for general street 
planting, but can advantageously be used for several blocks as an orna- 
mental tree or for planting in parking strips or in alternation with stan- 
dard shade trees, or along small avenues. 

Evergreen Cherry or Mock Orange (Primus caroliniana) .■ — This 
tree is a native of the coast but is hardy in this State as far west as Ealeigh 
and Charlotte. It is a small and short-lived evergreen tree attaining a 
height of 20 to 35 feet and an age of 30 to 40 years. It has a short trunk 



60 SHADE TREES EOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

with dark brown, cherry-like hark, which divides at a low height into many 
rather wide-spreading branches which form a flattened crown. The beau- 
tiful lustrous foliage is evergreen, and during early spring is rendered 
more attractive by a profusion of pale pink and white flowers, which have 
a delicate fragrance. The fruit is inconspicuous. 

The root system is shallow and rather compact, enabling trees to be 
easily moved, but care must be taken to strip subjects of their foliage be- 
fore removing. It stands pruning very well, producing numerous small 
branches. While free from diseases, the wood of old trees decays rapidly 
if exposed, and in the latitude of Raleigh and westward twigs are fre- 
quently frost killed during severe winters. The evergreen cherry, in spite 
of its small size, is one of the most desirable evergreen trees for street 
planting on account of its attractive foliage and flowers. It is especially 
suited for planting driveways and avenues in localities where it is desir- 
able to use a smaller evergreen tree than the laurel oak. It can also be 
advantageously used in alternation with standard shade trees to obtain 
during the winter a bit of verdure on the streets. It is readily propagated 
from seed. Trees should be spaced 25 feet when planted alone. 

China Tree (Melia azedarach) , an Asiatic tree extensively naturalized 
in this State as far west as Salisbury, is a middle-sized tree of rapid 
growth becoming 35 to 40 feet high and forming a broad, spreading 
crown. The dark green, dense, finely divided foliage is scarcely less 
attractive than the large panicles of extremely fragrant lilac flowers, 
which appear in April and early May. While it is one of the latest trees 
to put forth its foliage, its spring appearance as well as that during the 
winter is rendered pleasing by the stout open twigging and large clusters 
of lustrous yellow-brown berries. The wood is brittle and breaks badly 
during storms and wounds must be promptly protected to preclude decay. 
It endures heavy pruning and few trees are more easily transplanted. It 
is readily propagated by seed . 

While undesirable for planting along walks on account of its berries, 
it can be advantageously used along parking strips in which there are no 
walks, as well as an ornamental tree in parks and on private grounds. 
While it has fallen into disfavor on account of its former use in ill-chosen 
situations, there is no more attractive tree of its kind which can be planted 
in I he eastern two-thirds of this State. 

UMBRELLA TREE (Melia azedarach umbraculifcra) is a horticultural 
variety of the China tree, and is propagated by grafting. A much 
-iiuillcr tree than the China tree and with a shorter trunk, it forms a 
broad, spreading umbrella-shaped crown with dense dark green foliage. 
Tli'.' short trunk divides into a number of even-sized, ascending branches 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE TOR PLANTING. 61 

of the same length. It has the same aboricultural characteristics as its 
type, but can be propagated only by grafts. Young stock can be procured 
from nurserymen. A small and short-lived tree, it is well suited on ac- 
count of its rapid growth, dense umbrage, unique and symmetrical crown, 
for small avenues and narrow streets. It should be spaced 25 feet. 

Yellowwood (Cladrastis luted), a native of the mountains of this 
State, is a slender, rather short-lived tree becoming 35 or 40 years of age 
and reaching a height of 25 or 30 feet. It forms a broad, vase- or fan- 
shaped crown, with a thin canopy of light-green, compound, drooping 
foliage. The bark is smooth and light gray on both trunk and branches. 
The showy, pendant clusters of fragrant, white flowers, which are pro- 
duced in profusion in May, are followed by small pods, which are long 
persistent and add to its attractiveness during the deciduous season. It is 
easily transplanted, stands pruning well and can be freely reproduced from 
seed. It should be spaced 30 feet. 

One of the most desirable ornamental trees for street planting in this 
State on account of its clean foliage, slender, upright habit, it has how- 
ever never been used as a street tree and only in the most limited way for 
ornamental planting. While not so large as either yellow locust or Ken- 
tucky coffee tree, it is far more desirable than the former on account of 
its greater symmetry and better health and more so than the latter on 
account of the shape of its crown and the more uniform density of its 
canopy. 

Chestnut (Castanea dentata). — This native tree makes one of the 
most desirable large-sized shade trees that can be used in the western 
third of this State, making rapid growth especially in youth and attain- 
ing a great age. The slightly tapering trunk with smooth dark gray bark 
in youth and furrowed bark in old specimens is excurrent in young trees, 
forming an oval crown which gradually becomes very broad and spreading. 
It prefers a well-drained, loamy soil of good quality. It is very easily 
transplanted and no American tree can endure as vigorous pruning in old 
specimens as the chestnut. It stands storms well and is free from leaf 
diseases, but the wood of the trunk is attacked by borers, which, however, 
seldom injure its vitality and the bark is sometimes affected by a fungus 
which kills the tree, especially below 2000 feet elevation. The foliage is 
dense and dark green; the flowers in dense white spikes appear in June 
and July, and the fruit, in prickly burrs, ripens and falls in September. 
The chestnut should be spaced not less than 40 feet. See PI. IX. 

On account of its large prickly burrs and ill-scented flowers the chest- 
nut is not suitable for planting on streets very close to dwellings or to 
overhang sidewalks. It makes a desirable tree, however, for central 



62 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

planting in streets, for bordering driveways, for parks, and especially for 
roadsides. 

Beech (Fagus) is a common native tree which might with advantage 
be occasionally substituted for southern maple in the eastern or for sugar 
maple in the western portion of the State, when it is desired to secure a 
dense shade. While the growth is not so rapid as that of the maple, it is 
satisfactory and its smooth, gray bark, net-work of finely divided flexuous 
twigs, make it very attractive in the winter. It is somewhat more exact- 
ing in regard to soil than the maples and has a superficial root system, 
which is very extensive. It stands transplanting well, however, and is 
very tolerant of the knife. Its tendency is to branch low, which must be 
regulated, and it forms a broad, spreading crown of dense bright-green 
foliage. There are varieties with brown-purple foliage. It is, however, 
better suited for the lawn than roadside planting. Trees should be spaced 
35 feet. 

Hop Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), a native tree of small size 
and compact crown with elm-like foliage and bark, is seldom more than 20 
feet in height and reaches an age of 40 or 50 years. The growth is slow, 
especially in mature trees, but old trees maintain their soundness and 
health for a great many years. The trunk is rather long for so small a 
tree and the naturally broadly oval, symmetrical crown makes a dense 
shade. It is readily transplanted and, when necessary, stands pruning 
well. It is easily propagated from seed, but seedlings must be raised un- 
der light shade. Trees should be spaced 20 feet. On account of the com- 
pact habit, small size, health, and the slow growth of old specimens, it is 
a most desirable tree for planting narrow walks and streets, the trees 
requiring no trimming for many years. 

Oaks (Quercus). — The oaks form in this State, and in fact in the 
other Southern States, the largest and most important group of native 
shade trees, there being in this State alone fifteen species which make 
admirable shade trees, all of which are used in some portion of the State 
to a greater or less extent for that purpose. The water oak section, includ- 
ing the water, laurel, shingle and willow oaks, probably furnishes the 
species which do best in the eastern and middle portions of the State, al- 
though several of the white oaks and some of the red oaks do extremely 
well there also. Only one water oak is native to the western portion of 
the State, the shingle oak, which is not so satisfactory as many of the red 
oal • and while oaks of that region. 

Willi few exceptions,' the oaks attain large sizes as shade trees, several of 
them attaining the largest size of any shade trees we have. They are of 
rapid growth; especially in youth, have dean Foliage, are readily trans- 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN NO. l6. PLATE IX 




FINELY DEVELOPED CHESTNUT TREE IN FLOWER, ONE OF THE MOST DESIRABLE 

CAROLINA. (COURTESY OF U. S. FOREST SERVICE.) 



THE LARGE-SIZED TREES FOR WESTERN NORTH 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING. 63 

planted, stand pruning well, are not very subject to decay, while some 
species are resistant, and have in fact only one objectionable quality, that 
of their nuts, which in those species having large fruit renders them unde- 
sirable for use along paved walks on account of the attendant danger. 
White oaks include the white oak, post oak, chestnut oak and overcup oak. 
Eed oaks include red oak, black oak, Spanish oak, scarlet oak and pin oak. 

Live Oak (Quercus virginiana) is one of the largest of the native oaks 
and is well adapted for planting as far west as Kaleigh and Charlotte. 
Its short, stout, black-barked trunk divides at a low height into several 
very wide-spreading, nearly horizontal branches which form in old speci- 
mens an imposing crown of great extent. The small, dark green, persist- 
ent foliage casts a moderately dense shade. In the eastern portion of the 
State, and especially in the southeastern, the trees are often festooned 
with pendant streamers of gray moss. Trees are very free from diseases 
and the wood is so hard and tough that in spite of the stretch of its limbs, 
they are seldom broken by storms. 

The root system is rather wide-spreading and shallow and a sandy soil 
is most congenial for its rapid development, fast growth being made even 
to an advanced age on loose soils of moderate fertility, abundantly sup- 
plied with lime and organic matter. Even old trees endure heavy prun- 
ing. Young plants are easily secured from seed which are borne in abun- 
dance. Trees should be spaced not less than 60 feet. 

The live oak is not adapted for narrow streets on account of the enor- 
mous spread of its crown, but it can be used with imposing effect for mid- 
dle planting, especially on broad streets, as has been done at Southport, 
and less advantageously for lateral planting along broad walks. Since 
the growth of the crown is so largely lateral, its dignity of proportion can 
only be secured where it is afforded ample space for growth and this 
renders it an even more desirable tree for parks and lawns of large size 
than for streets. It is also well adapted for roadside planting, but not 
adjacent to fields. 

Laurel Oak (Quercus laurifolia), a native of the coast, is the most 
extensively planted shade tree in the coastal towns. This is a slender tree, 
with rough gray bark, a partially excurrent trunk, and many small, 
spreading and ascending branches and branchlets, forming an oval or 
broadly oval crown. It attains a height of 50 to 60 feet and an age of 
more than 50 years. The twigging is finely divided, flexuous and grace- 
ful, and the dark green, shining, nearly evergreen foliage casts a dense 
shade. While the acorns are borne in abundance, on account of their 
small size, they are not objectionable. Its semi-evergreen character com- 
pensates for the tardiness with which its spring verdure appears. Its 



6-i SHADE TREES EOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

rather shallow, fibrous root system develops rapidly on moist, light soils, 
but it makes satisfactory growth on heavy soils, if not too dry. None of 
the oaks root with more ease or can be more heavily pruned. It is free 
from leaf diseases, but unless the exposed heart wood is protected after 
pruning, it is rapidly attacked by species of hydnum and other wood- 
destroying fungi which in the moist climate of the coast rapidly skeleton- 
ize old trees. Seedlings are easily propagated. Trees should be spaced 
40 feet. 

The laurel oak, which is popularly confused with the water oak, is the 
most desirable shade tree for the streets of cities and towns, as well as for 
parks in the eastern half of the State, especially where it is afforded the 
favorable condition of a loose, moist soil. In planting it, the young sub- 
ject is usually heavily topped, being set out as a mere pole (PI. V, A) 
which tends to destroy its naturally oval crown and produce a flattened, 
spreading one, which is often misshapen by the formation of several lead- 
ers (PI. IV, B). The large, exposed surface where young specimens are 
topped frequently fails to heal over and is the seat of the entrance of 
many stem-destroying diseases. This tree is largely utilized in Wilming- 
ton and New Bern. 

Water Oak (Quercus nigra) grows in lowlands and open uplands from 
Morganton and Salisbury eastward, and is usually a common tree in such 
situations. It is a small or middle-sized tree with a short stem and 
roughened gray bark, and with a broadly oval or depressed globose crown 
formed of numerous, slender, sinuous spreading or horizontal branches. 
It makes a very rapid growth in youth, early acquiring a desirable size 
for a shade tree, and reaches an age of from 50 to 60 years. 

The water oak grows well on stiff, dry upland soils, although its pref- 
erence is for looser and moister soils. Transplanted specimens root easily 
and grow freely. It stands pruning very well and young specimens, when 
permanently set, are usually cut back to a mere stem, entirely destroying 
the leader and producing a much flattened crown. The foliage bears a 
general resemblance to that of the laurel oak, but it is of a duller green 
color, somewhat larger and is usually entirely deciduous, exceptional 
specimens only retaining a few green leaves on protected or vigorous 
shoots. It is less regular in form than the laurel oak, a smaller tree and 
one better adapted for narrow streets and for dry and heavy soils and for 
this reason better suited for the middle portion of the State. It is simi- 
lar to it in arboricultural characters. Trees should be spaced 30 feet. 

WILLOW Oak (Quercus phellos) is common throughout the middle por- 
tion of the State and occurs to a less extent in the eastern portion. It is 
a slender tree, of very rapid growth, especially in youth and well sus- 



DESCRIPTION OP TREES SUITABLE POR PLANTING. 65 

tained when past middle age, reaching a large size, 60 to 80 feet in height 
and attaining an advanced age. The trunk, covered with rough, nearly 
black bark, is excurrent in young specimens, which have a conical crown 
formed of slender, rather short dropping and spreading branches. In 
old trees the trunk usually branches towards the top and the crown be- 
comes more oval and round topped, but the sweeping habit of the slender 
lower branches is persistent. The twigging is slender and graceful. The 
foliage is small, bright green, willow-like, whence the name, and casts a 
deep shade. While more rapid growth is made on good soils, it yet does 
well on close dry ones. It roots very easily, which enables large specimens 
to be transplanted in spite of its rather deeply seated roots. It recovers 
rapidly from very heavy pruning even when old and so readily in young 
specimens that even after heavy topping a normal leader is usually at 
once developed. Care should always be taken, however, to prevent the 
formation of false leaders which will destroy the crown's symmetry. 
Trees should be spaced 40 feet. 

On account of its erect shape and pleasing foliage, rapid healthy 
growth and adaptability to heavy, clay soils, the willow oak makes one of 
the most desirable shade trees for the middle portion of the State, and is 
extensively planted in several towns. Try on and Church streets in Char- 
lotte, which are planted with this tree, deserve to rank among the most 
beautiful in the State. 

Shingle Oak (Quercus imbricaria), a small tree growing along 
streams in many portions of the mountains, has a habit much like that of 
the water oak, and makes a small but desirable tree for street planting in 
the western portion of the State. It is the smallest oak of that region 
which is suitable for a shade tree. It seldom reaches a height of more 
than 30 feet and requires a spacing of not less than 25 feet. 

White Oak (Quercus alba), the most common tree throughout the 
State, growing on all classes of soils, is of slow growth, although the rate 
is well sustained to an advanced age, reaching a very large size, from 70 
to 100 feet high, and becoming more than a century old. While the 
trunk is excurrent in young specimens, it gradually branches after pass- 
ing middle age, the shape of the crown changing from conical in early 
youth to depressed globose in age, with long wide-spreacling or horizontal 
branches. While the twigging is not so abundant or finely divided as it 
is in the water oaks, it is more so than in any other white oak or any of 
the red oaks. The leaves, which appear rather late in April after the deli- 
cate pale yellowish-green flowers, are, when un folding, of a soft silvery 
green tinged with rose. The dense bright green, mature foliage droops 
from the ends of the twigs and becomes in late autumn dark crimson and 



66 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

red, falling tardily, many leaves on the lower branches persisting through 
the winter. The white oak. is easily transplanted and stands pruning 
better than any of the large red and white oaks, except the swamp chest- 
nut oak. The foliage is clean and free from disease and it maintains its 
health and vigor to an advanced age. Trees should be spaced not less 
than SO feet, if unrestricted growth is to be permitted. 

On account of its slow growth in youth and very large size and the 
wide-spreading crown of old specimens, the white oak is not an entirely 
satisfactory tree for general street planting, although if used with discre- 
tion, it has its place and will amply justify the time required for it to 
attain its perfection. It is bordering wide avenues and in parks or on 
grounds of ample extent where its majesties crown and massive trunk can 
attain their full proportions that the white oak shows to fullest advantage. 

Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus micliauxii) , frequently found along 
streams and in swamps east of Salisbury, is a tree of scarcely less size and 
dignity than the white oak and is of far more rapid growth, especially in 
youth. 

The foliage, while larger than that of the former and a slightly lighter 
green, droops from the twigs in the same manner and colors in autumn 
even more brilliantly. The branchlets are stouter and the twigging less 
abundant than in the white oak, and in favored localities the height and 
spread of the crown equal the dimensions of the white oak. Its pref- 
erence is for a moist, loose soil, and abundant root room, but even on 
heavy dry clays it makes more rapid growth in youth than the white oak. 
The acorns are very large and occasionally are borne in great abundance, 
which is a drawback to planting beside paved walks. For middle parking 
strips, wide avenues or roadside planting, it is among the most desirable 
species. It is easily propagated from seed and stands vigorous pruning 
better than any other of the large white or red oaks. 

Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra) is a common tree in the moun- 
tains of this State and frequent in cool hollows as far east as Raleigh and 
Charlotte. 

This ti'ee scarcely seems to be desirable east of Morganton. In the 
mountains, however, where it passes under the local names of water and 
mountain oak, it should be considered among the choicest oaks. It 
attains a very large size, making rapid growth to quite an advanced age, 
and while there are no records of cultivated specimens in this State 
more than 30 years old, it reaches as a forest tree an age of more than 
200 years, and a height of more than 100 feet witli a crown spread ex- 
ceeding 60 feet, and it can reasonably be expected that in favored loca- 
fcions the red oak will read) proportions in the western part of this State 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE EOR PLANTING. 67 

nearly equal to those of the white oak in the midland counties. The 
twigging is rather coarse, angular and open, and the ample foliage, of a 
pleasing dark bluish green, which in autumn becomes dull red. Trees 
root easily and stand pruning well. Both foliage and trunk are free from 
diseases. The large acorns, however, are some objection to street plant- 
ing. The trees should be spaced 60 feet. 

Scarlet Oak (Quercus coccinea), common on heavy upland soils from 
Kaleigh westward, is a slender tree with light gray bark on the trunk 
and branches, reaching a height of from 60 to 70 feet and an age of more 
than 70 years. In young specimens and until well past middle age the 
trunk is excurrent, and the numerous, slender, spreading, or slightly 
drooping branches form an oval crown. With advancing age its excurrent 
character is not so noticeable and the crown becomes of greater spread. 
The branchlets are angled and the twigging is slender and well divided. 
The tender green foliage of the scarlet oak is among the first to appear 
of any of the larger trees, much preceding that of any of the other oaks. 
When mature, it is of a bright glossy green and casts a moderately dense 
shade. In autumn its brilliant crimson, which usually remains undulled, 
renders the scarlet oak for several weeks one of the most conspicuous of 
the trees. Occasional specimens remain green with here and there a leaf 
or branch of vivid color until long after the frosts have deadened other 
verdure. It is easily transplanted, though it does not root as quickly 
nor always as successfully as the white oak, the red oak, or the Spanish 
oak. It stands pruning well until very old. Acorns are borne in abun- 
dance but they are not so large as those of the red oak and are not as ob- 
jectionable along streets. Seedlings are easily raised. Trees should be 
spaced 45 feet. Scarlet oak is known throughout this State by the names 
of pin oak or Spanish oak. 

On account of its clean trunk, glossy foliage, brilliant autumnal color- 
ing and the lateness with which it holds its leaves, the scarlet oak is one 
of the most desirable, if not the most desirable, red oak for a street tree, 
and while it is but little planted, there is no reason why it should not be 
extensively used. 

Black Oak (Quercus velutina)is found throughout the State and is a 
large and rapid-growing tree with habit and foliage quite similar to that 
of the red oak in most respects, but inferior to the red oak for planting- 
west of Salisbury. Many of the original large trees in the groves of 
public grounds, etc., in the middle portion of the State are of this spe- 
cies. With so many other choicer species from which to make selection, 
the black oak has little to commend it for general planting. The largest 
and tallest trees on the capitol grounds at Raleigh are black oaks. 



:■:■?■:.'.- mam 



68 SHADE TREES FOB NORTH CAROLINA. 

Spanish Oak (Quercus digitata) is common in this State east of the 
Blue Ridge, and is known in this State exclusively by the name of red 
oak. It is a very large tree of rapid growth, attaining a height of 70 to 
80 feet, and an age of more than 100 years. The trunk is stout and 
covered with nearly black, rough bark, while the dome-shaped crown of 
old specimens is of large dimensions. The ample foliage, dark blue-green 
above and tawny beneath, is pendant in clusters from the tips of the twigs. 
Tbe leaves, like those of the black oak, are of an unattractive brownish- 
green color when appearing in spring, as are also the flowers, and they 
lack the autumnal brilliancy which characterizes the foliage of several of 
the other species. While not extensively planted, there are many large 
specimens to be seen on streets and on public grounds in middle and 
eastern Carolina. Many of these, however, are original forest trees which 
have been permitted to remain. While the general health of the tree is 
good, its foliage frequently attracts a large caterpillar in great numbers 
which detracts considerably from its value. It is of very rapid growth, 
easily transplanted, and endures the heaviest pruning, even when of a 
large size. Occasional trees are to be seen nearly 100 feet high and with 
trunks 3 or 4 feet through. Several large specimens stand in the capitol 
grounds at Ealeigh. This tree is also known as southern red oak. 

Pin Oak (Quercus pahistris), a native of northeastern United States, 
is a middle-sized tree with drooping lower branches forming a conical 
crown in youth, which becomes oval in old age. When young the trunk 
is excurrent but divides towards the top in old trees. The twigging is 
fine and abundant, and the small, deeply lobed, bright green foliage is 
extremely attractive. It makes a rather dense shade and its autumnal 
coloring is nearly as brilliant as that of the scarlet oak. It is easily trans- 
planted and stands pruning well and its general health is good. It is con- 
sidered the most desirable oak for northern planting, and would undoubt- 
edly be a favorite in the extreme western portion of this State. It re- 
sembles in habit the willow oak and is in no way superior to that for use 
where the willow oak will grow. A few have been planted in the western 
portion of the State, to which region it is most suited, but has few if any 
points of superiority over the scarlet oak. 

Ginkgo is a Japanese tree, several specimens of which have already 
been planted in the eastern portion of this State. It is a slender tree hav- 
iii - an excurrent stem covered with light brown bark. The crown is nar- 
rowly or sometimes broadly conical, and rather loosely branched. The 
small delicate fern-like foliage forms a thin canopy, only partially feath- 
ering the stout branehlets. The orange fruit about half an inch in diame- 
ter is often borne in abundance on large trees, and adds to their attract- 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE EOR PLANTING. 69 

iveness during the late fall ; the odor however makes it unpleasant when 
planted near dwellings. The chief attraction the ginkgo has during the 
winter is its conical crown and stout bright brown horizontal twigs, with 
their short spur-like branchlets. It is readily transplanted but does not 
stand pruning well and the leader should not be cut beyond the season's 
growth on account of the risk of destroying the shape of the crown. It is 
easily propagated from seed which as well as young plants can be secured 
from nurserymen. 

There are few trees better suited for formal avenues than the ginkgo, 
and while its use as a general street tree is restricted, it can be effectively 
placed in central parking strips and on wide walks. 

Sycamore (Platanus), a common native tree, is one of our largest 
(becoming 70 to 80 feet in height), and most rapidly growing trees, form- 
ing in youth a broadly pyramidal crown, which becomes massive and 
dome-shaped in old specimens. The trunk is stout, tapering and excur- 
rent until well past middle age, and is covered like the branches with pale 
olive-brown and nearly white bark which peels in thin, irregular layers, 
producing an attractive mottled appearance. The twigging is rather 
abundant and slender, and the large leaves, dark gray green above and 
whitened beneath, form a moderately dense canopy. 

The sycamore roots extremely easy and large specimens are readily 
transplanted; and there is no other species forming an excurrent stem 
which can be heavily topped when of large size and have the crown so 
perfectly replaced as this. It prefers loose moist soils. The wood decays 
rapidly on exposure and it is difficult to prevent large specimens from 
forming hollows. In many portions of the United States its value as a 
shade tree has been much lessened by a fungus which attacks the twigs. 
So far, however, trees have not been thus injured in this State. It is 
readily propagated both from seed and cuttings and deserves to rank as 
one of our most valuable rapidly growing shade trees. The heavy, dusty 
down which the leaves of young trees shed in the spring is considered to 
render it undesirable for planting near schools, churches, etc. Trees 
should be spaced 50 feet. 

Oriental Plane (Platanus orientalis), a tree originally from Asia 
Minor, is similar to the native sycamore, but grows less rapidly, has 
leaves more deeply lobed and its petioles are conspicuously reddened. It 
is, however, a tree of rapid growth and forms a straight, tapering trunk 
and large pyramidal crown which gradually becomes rounded with age. 
It stands pruning well and is easily transplanted. On account of its 
freedom from the fungus which affects the foliage of the native species, 
it is regarded in the northeastern States as a more desirable tree. It has 



70 SHADE TEEES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

been extensively utilized on the streets of Biltmore in this State, where it 
has proven satisfactory, hut so far it has shown no point of superiority 
for general planting in this State above the native tree. Trees should be 
spaced 50 feet. 

Poplars (Popuhis) form a large group of extremely rapid growing 
but comparatively short-lived trees. Most of them have symmetrical, 
conical crowns and deltoid, tremulous foliage. While very desirable 
where it is necessary to secure quick shade either on streets, for screening 
or for other purposes, few of them are suitable for use as permanent trees 
for general street planting. The native species are known as cottonwoods, 
Carolina, or necklace poplars, and while they have several minor differ- 
ences, they agree in the general conical shape of the long crown and ex- 
tremely rapid growth. For deep sandy lands, for most part destitute of 
tree growth, the Carolina poplar serves a good purpose, as in Moore 
County, at Southern Pines and other points. All the species root ex- 
tremely easy and can be readily propagated from cuttings, or layers, as 
well as from seed, except the Lombardy, which does not produce seed in 
this country. 

Lombardy Poplar (Popvhts nigra italica), a tree with a short trunk, 
narrowly conical crown and erect branches, is well known in North Caro- 
lina. It is longer lived than many other species of poplar, and on moist 
soil attains a height of more than 80 feet, and trees of more than 100 
feet are recorded. The leaves protrude comparatively early, and last later 
in autumn than those of other poplars. It is effectively used for a certain 
class of planting, especially where it is desirable to secure a quick shade, 
since the growth is extremely rapid. While it does better on moist .soils 
than on dry ones, it will grow in any portion of this State from the coast 
to the high mountains. It is propagated only from suckers or cuttings 
and the trees should be spaced 15 feet apart (PI. X). 

Bollh Poplar (Populus alba bolleana), has the same fastigiate habit 
as the Lombardy poplar and is more desirable than that tree on account of 
lis freedom from suckers, although its leaves appear about a week later 
than those of the Lombardy. It is propagated only by layers and cut- 
tings. If planted at all in this State, it is only sparingly. Plants can be 
-'■cured from reliable nurserymen. 

Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) forms a narrow, pyramidal 
crown with ascending branches and stout open twiggage. The large, 
bright green heart-shaped leaves diffuse a fragrant balsamic odor as they 
unfold in late spring. The buds arc large and glossy, resinous and frag- 
rant, li "riiw well mi wet soils and is suitable for planting, especially 
along roads following the bunks of streams, throughout the western por- 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN NO. l6. PLATE X 




ROWS OF LOMBARDY POPLARS WITH NARROWLY CONICAL CROWNS AND ERECT BRANCHES. 
IT CAN BE EFFECTIVELY USED FOR A CERTAIN CLASS OF PLANTING, ESPECIALLY WHERE 
IT IS DESIRABLE TO SECURE A QUICK SHADE, SINCE THE GROWTH IS EXTREMELY RAPID. 



DESCRIPTION OF TREES SUITABLE EOR PLANTING. 71 

tion of the State. Trees are readily propagated from suckers or cuttings 
which form an extensive though shallow root system. Trees should be 
spaced 30 feet. 

Necklace Poplar (Populus monilifera) is a tree indigenous to our 
swamps but now in general cultivation around towns. It makes even on 
poor soils a large tree 70 or more feet in height, with a short trunk and 
very large, narrowly conical crown. The growth is extremely rapid, 
trees frequently attaining a height of 30 feet in ten years from a cutting. 
The trunk is excurrent and its bark, except at the base, where nearly 
black, is a pale gray as well as that on the rather numerous ascending 
branches. The large deltoid foliage appears very late, the trees being 
naked except for the fruit catkins when all other trees are green and falls 
correspondingly early in autumn, after turning a dull brown. In order 
to avoid the objectionable cotton floats which bear the seed, only the male 
or pistillate form should be planted. Easily propagated by cuttings. 

Carolina Poplar {Populus deltoides) is a native tree, frequently 
planted. Although smaller than the preceding, it is similar in habit and 
cultural characters. The mobile leaves are smaller and appear two weeks 
earlier in the spring, which adds to its desirability. In spite of their 
large crowns, both species cast a light shade. The foliage begins falling 
early in September and the trees are frequently entirely bare before other 
species have begun shedding. They early reach maturity, usually within 
twenty-five years, and decline with great rapidity. Both species endure 
heavy pollarding, but it is apt to injure the symmetry of the crown. We 
have no other trees which will attain the same size in so short a time, and 
the chief point in their favor is their extremely rapid growth enabling 
shade to be secured in a few years. 

Golden-bark Willow (Salix alba vitellina) is one of the most desira- 
ble and rapid growing willows. It forms a broad, spreading crown and 
has an abundance of slender, glossy, deep green foliage. In winter it is 
especially attractive on account of its bright yellow-brown barked branches 
and dense mass of slender, bright colored twigs. There are few very rapid 
growing trees which would be more desirable for moist soils in the moun- 
tains of this State. It is rather short-lived, however, and will probably 
not become older than 40 years. It stands heavy pollarding and can be 
readily raised from cuttings. 

Our native willow does not make a desirable shade tree, although it is 
sometimes planted, and the same is true of the weeping willow, which 
is suitable only for lawns or for planting along river roads and water 
fronts. 



72 SHADE TREES FOR NORTH CAROLINA. 

TEEES SUITABLE FOR DEY SOILS. 
Of the trees described above the following will be found among the 
best growers on very dry soils such as sand-hills : Cottonwood, Carolina 
Poplar, Lombardy Poplar, Russian Mulberry, Water Oak, Willow Oak, 
Live Oak, Olive, Magnolia, Mockorange, Pecan and Spanish Oak (South- 
ern Red Oak). In the extreme southeastern portion of the State, near 
the coast, the Palmetto can probably be grown, but it will be more of an 
ornamental tree than a shade tree. 

TREES SUITABLE FOR WET SOILS. 
On cold, wet or poorly-drained soils, such as pipe-clay bottoms and 
swampy land, the following trees will be found the most satisfactory : 
Red Maple, Swamp Ash, Pin Oak, Laurel Oak, the Gums and Cypress. 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY. 



BULLETINS. 

1. Iron Ores of North Carolina, by Henry B. C. Nitze, 1893. 8°, 239 pp., 20 
pi., and map. Postage 10 cents. 

2. Building and Ornamental Stones in North Carolina, by T. L. Watson and 
F. B. Laney in collaboration with George P. Merrill, 1906. 8°, 283 pp., 32 pi., 
2 figs. Postage 25 cents. Cloth-bound copy 30 cents extra. 

3. Gold Deposits in North Carolina, by Henry B. C. Nitze and George B. 
Hanna, 1896. 8°, 196 pp., 14 pi., and map. Out of print. 

4. Road Material and Road Construction in North Carolina, by J. A. Holmes 
and William Cain, 1893. 8°, 88 pp. Out of print. 

5. The Forests, Forest Lands and Forest Products of Eastern North Caro- 
lina, by W. W. Ashe, 1894. 8°, 128 pp., 5 pi. Postage 5 cents. 

6. The Timber Trees of North Carolina, by Gifford Pinchot and W. W. Ashe, 
1897. 8°, 227 pp., 22 pi. Postage 10 cents. 

7. Forest Fires: Their Destructive Work, Causes and Prevention, by W. W. 
Ashe, 1895. 8°, 66 pp., 1 pi. Postage 5 cents. 

8. Water-powers in North Carolina, by George F. Swain, Joseph A. Holmes 
and E. W. Myers, 1899. 8°, 362 pp., 16 pi. Postage 16 cents. 

9. Monazite and Monazite Deposits in North Carolina, by Henry B. C. Nitze, 
1895. 8°, 47 pp., 5 pi. Postage 4 cents. 

10. Gold Mining in North Carolina and other Appalachian States, by Henry 
B. C. Nitze and A. J. Wilkins, 1897. 8°, 164 pp., 10 pi. Postage 10 cents. 

11. Corundum and the Basic Magnesian Rocks of Western North Carolina, 
by J. Volney Lewis, 1895. 8°, 107 pp., 6 pi. Postage 4 cents. 

12. History of the Gems Found in North Carolina, by George Frederick 
Kunz, 1907. 8°, 60 pp., 15 pi. Postage S cents. Cloth-bound copy SO cents 
extra. 

13. Clay Deposits and Clay Industries in North Carolina, by Heinrich Ries, 
1897. 8°, 157 pp., 12 pi. Postage 10 cents. 

14. The Cultivation of the Diamond-back Terrapin, by R. E. Coker, 1906. 
8°, 67 pp., 23 pi., 2 figs. Postage 6 cents. 

15. Experiments in Oyster Culture in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, by 
Robert E. Coker, 1907. 8°, 74 pp., 17 pi., 11 figs. Postage 6 cents. 

16. Shade Trees for North Carolina, by W. W. Ashe, 1908. 8°, 74 pp., 10 pi., 
16 figs. Postage 6 cents. 

17. Terracing of Farm Lands, by W. W. Ashe, 1908. 8°, 38 pp., 6 pi., 2 figs. 
Postage 4 cents. 

18. A List of Elevations in North Carolina, by Joseph Hyde Pratt. In pre- 
paration. 

19. The Tin Deposits of the Carolinas, by Joseph Hyde Pratt and Douglass 
B. Sterrett, 1905. 8°, 64 pp., 8 figs. Postage 4 cents. 

20. The Loblolly Pine in Eastern North Carolina, by W. W. Ashe. In prepa- 
ration. 



74 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 



ECONOMIC PAPERS. 

1. The Maple-Sugar Industry in Western North Carolina, by W. W. Ashe, 
1S97. 8°, 34 pp. Postage 2 cents. 

2. Recent Road Legislation in North Carolina, by J. A. Holmes. Out of 
print. 

3. Talc and Pyrophyllite Deposits in North Carolina, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
1900. 8°, 29 pp., 2 maps. Postage 2 cents. 

4. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1900, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1901. 8°, 36 pp., and map. Postage 2 cents. 

5. Road Laws of North Carolina, by J. A. Holmes. Out of print. 

6. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1901, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1902. 8°, 102 pp. Postage 4 cents. 

7. Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1902, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
1903. 8°, 27 pp. Postage 2 cents. 

8. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1903, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1904. 8°, 74 pp. Postage 4 cents. 

9. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1904, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1905. 8°, 95 pp. Postage 4 cents. 

10. Oyster Culture in North Carolina, by Robert E. Coker, 1905. 8°, 39 pp. 
Postage 2 cents. 

11. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1905, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1900. 8°, 95 pp. Postage 4 cents. 

12. Investigations Relative to the Shad Fisheries of North Carolina, by John 
N. Cobb, 1900. 8°, 74 pp., 8 maps. Postage (i cents. 

13. Report of Committee on Fisheries in North Carolina. Compiled by 
Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1906. 8°, 78 pp. Postage 4 cents. 

14. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1906, by Jospeh Hyde 
Pratt, 1907. 8°, 144 pp., 20 pi., and 5 figs. Postage 10 cents. 

15. The Mining Industry iu North Carolina During 1907, by Joseph Hyde 
Prau. in preparation. 

VOLUMES. 

Vol. 1. Corundum and the Basic iwagnesian Rocks in Western North Caro- 
lina, by Joseph Hyde Pratt and J. Volney Lewis, 1905. S", 464 pp., 44 pi., 
35 tigs. Postage '62 cents. Cloth-bound copy SO cents extra. 

Vol. 11. Fishes of North Carolina, by H. M. Smith, 1907. 8°, 453 pp., 21 pi., 
188 figs. Postage 30 cents. 

Vol. III. Miscellaneous Mineral Resources in North Carolina, by Joseph 
Hyde Piatt. In preparation. 



Samples of any mineral found in the State may be sent to the office of the 
Geological and Economic Survey for identification, and the same will be clas- 
sified free of charge. It must be understood, however, that jno assays, ok 
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATIONS, WILL BE made. Samples should be in a lump 
form if possible, and marked plainly on outside of package with name of 
sender, post-office address, etc.; a letter should accompany sample and stamp 
should be enclosed for reply. 



These publications are mailed to libraries and to individuals who may 
dei hi information <<n any of the special subjects named, free of charge, except 
that in each case applicants for the reports should forward the amount of 
postage needed, as Indicated above, for mailing the bulletins desired, to the 
State Geologist, Chapel Hill, N. C. 



I II 



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STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



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PAMPHLET BINDER - 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
Stockton. Calif 



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